Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Philadelphia Primate Head Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Philadelphia prelate Head Study - Essay ExampleSome decades ago, the federal government had to suspend the funding of the Universitys Head Injury Clinical Research Laboratory. The reigning president back then, Sheldon Hackney, further issued a directing to stop the institutions uptake of animal experiments aimed at discovering the best treatment for victims of trauma-related brain damage. The directional served as a timely response to a preliminary report by the National build of Health (NIH) aimed at halting a particular baboon research project (Meyer 1). In my honest opinion, the use of primates in studies should be abolished because it is disrespectful to anatomy, unjust and goes against the ethics of beneficence and non-maleficence.In May 1984, animal(prenominal) Liberation Front (ALF) activists intruded the deserted Philadelphia campus of The University of Pennsylvania and took several videos of animals suffering during various head tests (Orlans 71). The videos captured m ore than 60 hours of enforced baboon-suffering through bombarding of the primates heads using pistons in order to induce brain injuries. People for the respectable Treatment of Animals (PETA) made claims that the videotapes showed actions of repeated violations of federal policies that govern the humane use of animals in research laboratories (Orlans 71). In the experiments, scientists disregarded the use of surgical asepsis and employed a very insignificant amount of anaesthesia to the primates bodies. philanthropy refers to an action done for the benefit of others through prevention/removal of harm (Beneficence vs. Nonmaleficence par.1). The principle demands that all physicians should refrain from harming their patients. The researchers in Philadelphia, therefore, through causing the baboons tremendous levels of pain, disregarded the need to take in the principle of beneficence. The painful act also illustrates a significant deal of injustice to the animal. I am of the opinio n that, even if an animal has to die,

Monday, April 29, 2019

Technology Leadership is a Business Strategy Essay

Technology Leadership is a Business Strategy - Essay congressmanEven if there were some computers in an organization, it was only with the most senior employees or in enquiry departments. Now though, things fuddle moved on. The development of the internet by the US Army and its public flex in the 1980s has created quite a phenomenal change in information engine room (Moschella, 1997). net income forms the very backbone of our society today. New generations fear thinking how we managed to add up stuff done when we didnt have this much engineering in our lives.Technology leadership goes far beyond the conventional planning processes. It is near the change it posterior bring about in the very foundations of running the company and the ways and direction with which it is run. It creates a whole new way of defining efficiency and goal achievement strategies (Sosik, 2004). This means that the consumption of the executive director is vital in the deployment of technology. So, techn ology send away not be a winner in an origination if employees are not comfortable with it or they do not know the extensive benefits of it.We continuously study optimization strategies and efficient working conditions in almost every course, be it colligate to science or the business fields. This is because computers and technology have helped humans today see that they can get more work done in lesser time. The absolute vastness of technology is that an organization save in getting much more work done in a small step of time and the output is error free as well. Technology today is not even dear(predicate) to buy. Many small business organizations are lighten running on vintage hardware and still are way in the lead because their staff know how get the best out of what has been provided to them.Companies manage Microsoft and Linux developers research and develop operating systems with software that is not only easier to use than their previous editions, but which can acco mplish more at the same time. We are talking about multitasking. Imagine for a moment, the importance of doing several time consuming tasks at the same time. It takes accountants and engineers hours to develop circuits on paper. But, using computer software, they can produce error free results in a matter of a few minutes.Consumer goods companies like Unilever and Procter & put on the line replace their hardware after every three years just to cope up with the increase change in computing technology. They know the importance of technology in their goal achievement techniques. This occurrence is also helped by the fact that each CEO of the company is fluent and comfortable with the use of technology and in annual board meetings they are able to convince the board members, who can actually plant or break the company if they disagree with technological innovations, on deploying better and more efficient technology and train employees in the area of using this new technology.Use of t echnologies in banks like Standard chartered is vital. The prime example of this is an ATM machine. How easy is it to take your cash out of a machine alternatively than stand in queues waiting for your turn at the counterConclusionTechnology leadership is the pure tone most required in todays top companies. This is the reason they are at

Sunday, April 28, 2019

What stressors exist for incarcerated women Essay

What stressors exist for incarcerated women - Essay ExampleReligious groups have shown constant and persistent following in working with the incarcerated people in jail to help bring about their rehabilitation. Evidently, this is evident as many terms that are currently associated with the prisons came about from the efforts made by the people of faith in the 18th century. These are terms like the reformatory, rehabilitation and the penitentiary. This was in an effort to ensure that the inmates fully amend while serving their jail term (Lazzari, 2005). The faith-based organizations provide in-house ministries, mentor charge of the inmates, bible studies and even preparing the inmates for their release. However, these faith-based organizations require volunteer ship and participation from the inmates. A study by Camp and Associates in 2006 however, revealed that females, blacks and Hispanics were less likely to volunteer in these organizations. Evidently, this is because of many cha llenges and stresses that these women undergo.Incarcerated women faced a lot of challenges and stresses during their imprisonment period. These challenges range from both physical and mental stresses. Evidently, women conditions and career at the prisons were characterized by unsafe environments, which ranged from lack of proper sanitation facilities. The prisons had inadequate or very fewer sewage and bathing facilities and systems (Cobbina, 2010). The incarceration period was also greatly marred with hard physical tug and in most cases the women oversaw corporal punishment. In addition to this, there was no medical care for the offenders who be a great risk and worried mostly to the pregnant offenders. The women with mental health problems were held in a solitary confinement something that posed a great stress to the offenders (Lazzari, 2005). To help the women deal with these problems, the authors stress on the need of the use of faith based organizations.The faith-based prog rams are seen to

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Latinos non-violent protests demanding changes in the New Immigration Essay

Latinos non-violent protests demanding changes in the New Immigration Law - Essay ExampleImportantly, this concerns the reservations some of you have expressed with regards to Latinos non-violent protests demanding changes in the New Immigration Law. First, let me acknowledge that the issue of illegal immigration in the States remains a concern of everybody in our beau monde, and Latinos are not excluded (Boundary of the United States Para. 1-4). American Latinos suffer in the same way their fellow non-Latinos suffer when illegal immigrants impact on the social, economic, and political security wrench overwhelming and less manageable. Just like white Americans, legal and genuine American Latinos wants a salvage society that is equal in its dealing with everyone, and that is just in treating everyone fairly and not because of his or her race. This is in addition to rewarding every spate equally depending on their hard work and success without distinction indeed, that is the sa me thing American Latinos want to see in America. My brothers and sisters, let me re fountainhead you that the issue of illegal immigration in USA has not started with Latinos, but remains historical in nature, starting crimson before the independence of this great nation. Throughout this period, efforts, visions, and mechanisms to deal with immigrants has not been fair at all rather, it has tried and true to pursue, promote, and institutionalize discrimination in our Nation to portionicular groups of our nation. This discrimination has march on been transferred and implanted in our societys instruments of justice, delivery, education, political, and legal environment to an extent that they largely draw a thin line between genuine American Latinos and the illegal immigrants. Latinos who call America home should remember that they have not been spared in this wide discrimination and segregation, and this has not been their fault but the ignorance, laxity, and cruelty of our vari ous social institutions and structures that continuously dare to accept these people as part of American people. The presence of American Latinos in this great rural area cannot be questioned or doubted, specifically if one had to revisit the history of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 and Gadsden Treaty of 1854 (Englekirk and Marin p.1). For those who whitethorn appear to be ignorant of these two treaties and only view Latinos in the perspectives of illegal criminals in USA, part of Mexico was curved off and became USA territory through constitutional recognition. People in these territories therefore had no choice but to call USA their home yes, their home to enjoy all privileges entitled to all Americans. They did not force their way to become Americans, but it is America that made them part of this society. Becoming Americans further did not deny the Latinos their cultural identity, their cultural belonging and also their cultural freedom. They still remained part and megabucks of their brothers and sisters at home. What I have noticed with majority of you fellow Americans is that, we sparingly visit and shine on out constitution, which is the supreme custodian of our actions. Our constitution remains clear and candid that all people of God are endowed with certain unalienable rights, which remain inherently natural and part of world being. Nobody can boast, claim, or even seek credit that human rights are privileges granted by the government or any form of mechanism. Therefore, it greatly saddens when the rights of Latinos are grossly violated in the heel of dealing with illegal immigrants. Let me express here that, being objective and rational in your mind as I am will allude to the fact that the issues and problems facing Americans in terms of security, economy and social welfare

Friday, April 26, 2019

The State and the Individual Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The State and the Individual - Essay ExampleThe recent passage of the Patient Protection and low-priced Care Act created legal produces about whether the Federal government has the power to make it mandatory for individuals to procure health burster insurance and whether states can opt out or nullify much(prenominal) provides. The Constitution of the the States does not provide citizens with an explicit right wing to health safeguard. The Supreme hail has held that as per the Constitution, individuals can seek healthcare services at their own cost from the available service providers. (Sw ratiocinationiman, 2010, p.2). It has also held that there is no provision that guarantees government health care for those that cannot afford it. At the same time, many states in the US set about constitutional state provisions relative to providing healthcare services to citizens. As compared to the Federal government, the constitutions of states have more(prenominal) expansive provisions relative to health care because federal rights require states to comply with minimum standards (Bayer, 2007, p.1). The issue that arises in this regard is the extent to which states can legally restrain the freedom of individuals in serving the prevalent good of the entire population. In addition, the question arises about the extent to which humankind welfare can be protected in justifying government actions relative to curtailing or eroding fundamental rights. Such issues form the basis of controversy and long drawn debates relative to public health in the US. The Supreme Court has set forth inter-state commerce as being amongst economic activities that impact the countrys economy. Given that the health care sector impacts the countrys economy, it becomes implied from this argument that the federal government has the right to control health care through legislation. Although the US Supreme Court and Constitution do not acknowledge the constitutional right to healthcare for pe ople unable to afford it, a number of statutes have been enacted by the Federal government, such as the Childrens Health Program, Medicaid and Medicare, which describe and establish the precise rights of individuals relative to receiving healthcare services from the state. A major element of several healthcare entitlements from the government is the funding for healthcare facilities that are provided under the law. mass of these provisions were enacted following recognition of the Federal governments authority to enact laws that are prerequisite for carrying out its authorization for providing towards the general welfare of individuals. This authority to spend on healthcare is considered to be a broad grant of authority vested to the Federal government by the countrys Constitution. The Supreme Court gives significant regard to the legislative decisions taken by the Congress for making provisions for healthcare budgets in keeping with the objectives of public welfare (Garrett, 2000 , p.216). However, there are a number of tensions about the scope of public health and the extent to which it can be accepted, especially in terms of the original issues relative to competitiveness infectious diseases during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The issue attained more significance at the end of the 20th century because of efforts to resolve the chronic patterns that

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Business writing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Business authorship - Essay ExampleIn contrast, external confabulation refers to the spread of information outside a particular organization (Courtland 4-7). Especially in a ain interview process, communicative and non-verbal communication proficiencys are extensively used. Verbal or spoken communication technique displace non be fully isolated from some other interpersonal skills such as listening. On the other hand, non- verbal communication relies mainly upon eye come to between a sender and a receiver, facial expression, perspective along with gesture, personal appearance, time and space (Loewy and Guffey 12-14). THESIS STATEMENT This essay intends to conduct a self-critique writing based upon an interview. In this regard, several aspects such as analyzing the facets of delivery along with speech composition, distinguishing between frail and voiceless shop, diagnosing interviewing problems and depicting proposed remedies will be discussed. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF SPEECH C OMPOSTION AND DELIVERY In intercourse to the mock interview conducted, it can be analyzed that during the interview process, my speech composition was not up to the mark. This can be justified that when the interviewer asked me to tell about myself, I was not very more than confident to entertain her a specific answer. Consequently, as I was not much confident, my eye contact missed a lot. Moreover, during the time of delivering a speech, at certain times, I felt much hesitated to give her with appropriate response. When the interviewer took a time to ask me the next question, in between that time, I looked around here and there, which eventually revealed a negative impression towards the interviewer. When the interviewer asked me the reason for working in her company, I told her that it is my personal elicit of doing the job rather than professional interest. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN WEAK AND STRONG SUPPORT One of my strong supports in relation to the mock interview was my polite b ehavior while communicating with the interviewer. I presented myself sort of joyfully and friendly with the interviewer. Moreover, in relation to the strong support, it can be affirmed that when the interviewer asked me about my strengths along with weaknesses, I was able to provide these information much confidently. On the other hand, relating to the mock interview, my weak support was that I was not properly dressed, which might created a negative impression in front of the interviewer. It can also be viewed from the interview that I was not much confident enough as I looked here and there while asked the questions by the interviewer to me. IDENTIFY UNCLEAR RESPONSES AND IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS In relation to the conduct of the mock interview, an unclear response can be place at the time when I asked the interviewer about the future planning of the company. In this regard, one of the possible solutions concerning this unclear response could be request the interviewer about various job related aspects such as job timing, salary structure and other associated questions. DIAGNOSE INTERVIEWING PROBLEMS AND PROPOSE REMEDIES From the mock interview conducted, certain interviewing problems can be apparently observed. In this same concern, one of the problems was that I was not much confident enough to answer the questions asked by the interviewer. Moreover, the other interviewing problems were identified to be less eye to eye contact and the tone of voice is also quite low. isolated from

The Importance of One Individual Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Importance of One Individual - appellative ExampleThe group development or team formation goes through many processes. The first tone of voice in this regard is called form. In this step, the teams members are being selected and they are explained about the coming(prenominal) challenges and chances, and they are also explained in depth about the motives and goals of the team. Likewise, we were told about the difficulties in maintaining a friendly surroundings in the team as we were from different communities and we had different views on different topics. In the starting, the members of the group show their finest to give the best possible implementation so that they can be noticed by the coaches. Likewise, I and other group members were trying to seek the attention of the coach by giving our best. But we had an bugger off to achieve the goals we had thought of as an man-to-man. We were not only struggling for the benefit of our team but for our admit benefits too. Exper ienced team members and the leaders began to teach us about the importance of collaboration and suitable address even at this early stage of formation. The team leaders were very directive at this stage. The forming var. of a team is of paramount importance, as it provides the chance to the team members of knowing and understanding each other. This is likewise an excellent chance to observe in what manner every member of the group moves as an individual and how they counter to pressure.After the forming phase, our team entered in the phase of Storming. In this stage, the team addressed about the problems which authentically needed to be solved, our way to proceed individually and as a group and about the performance criterion of our team. All team members gave their suggestions and ideas and listened to each other. We also tackled with the conflicting views of other team members.

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Fiat Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

ordination - Assignment grammatical caseThere be many reasons such as inflation, increased competitiveness from Japanese and Korean manufacturers, the offshoot of low cost Asian manufacturers, change in policies and the global crisis. As a result, huge losings have been faced in terms of sales and turnover. There be many internal issues as well that have added to the existing problem of Fiat. This gutter be handled by identifying the key opportunities. The transformation of opportunities into strengths is the deprivation of Fiat to come out from the crisis. Legal and consumer trends are looking for green technology and gas- efficient cars. This can be a study advantage for Fiat as it has always been addressing environmental concerns. In this report, an synopsis of all such areas has been done which have contributed towards the decline of the Fiats performance and ranking in the automotive industry. The aim is to figure out the problematic areas where change and direction is required. In the first section, the emphasize of the company is discussed. The external factors such as economic or expert which are the major indicators of issue or decline in any industry are evaluated to understand the current market trends and situation. The major challenges faced by Fait assort are outlined keeping in mind its strengths and weaknesses. In the end, recommendations are given in the form of solutions that must be incorporated in the companys scheme to address the major areas of concern. Company Background Fiat is one of the founders of European Automotive Industry and has a history of more than 100 years. The acronym of FIAT is Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino. It was established on the eleventh of July 1899 by a group of investors and has its headquarters in Turin, Italy. Today, it has been operating in more than 61 countries with 1,063 companies. It has diversified into a pool of industries and has been shrewd and selling cars, trucks, construction & ag riculture equipment, engines, military vehicles, aviation etc. At the time of its inception, Giovanni Agnelli, one of the members of the come on of Directors, stood out and was known as the companys innovator and mastermind. He had a great strategic vision and determination to make the company highly successful. Due to his utmost efforts along with the other members of the company, Fiat gained recognition at a very early stage and it is said to produce more than 10% percent of Italys GDP. In 1900, the first factory was opened in Carso Dante with a workforce of cl workers who produced 24 cars. As of 2009, only the domestic workforce has reached to 198,348 workers. It has a workforce of about 223,000 people. Out of which, 111,000 are outside Italy. Fiat logo was designed in 1904 which has become a status symbol cod to the superior and world-class cars manufactured by the company. During the First World War, it aimed at the production of munitions. With the rapid technological change s, developments were made at the railway sector, commercial vehicles etc. The year 1958 was marked as an economic gold rush for Italy which was facing a downfall due to the advent of the Second World War. The automobile sector too grew as it was the driving force for the Italian economy. Fiat experienced an increased production along with the exports from 1965 to 1977. In the year 1979, an independent automobile sector came into existence which was named as Fiat Auto S.P.A which included Fiat, Autobianchi, Ferrari, Abarth

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Engineering Management Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Engineering Management - Coursework ExampleManagement style has an important constituent to play as appropriate focussing style stack help employees perform their tasks efficiently and get hold of their targets, meet organizational goals, keep the employees motivated and help organization make efficient decisions (Bryman, 1993). Not that this, management style has a major part to play in creating the organizational culture. This topic highlights rough the management style of one of the most renowned companies of the world, Apple Inc. The management style of the previous chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Apple has been analyzed and advantages and disadvantages of his leadership style waste been discussed. Also the report provides different types of recommendation to the management of Ili Electronics Inc. to implement some of the characteristics in the company that could be helpful in increasing the morale and motivation of the employees and at the same time improve the productivity and profitability of the company. ... In an arrogant management style, the decision making authority and power lies with the top management of the organization and employees atomic number 18 not allowed to make their decisions. In such a management style, the employees of the organization argon supposed to ascertain the instructions and orders presumptuousness to them by the manager. Apple operates in an industry where innovation and creativity are truly important factors, and other firms in the same industry encourage employees to think and be innovative and roll in the hay up with different ideas (Silicon Beach Training News, 2011). In Apple the decisions are imposed, whereas in Google the management has given employees to the option to select the project they would like to work on and with whom they would like to work with thus these both management styles contain been contrasting but both have been successful. 20% of the employees working time have been allo cated by Google to come up with their own software concepts and ideas whereas all kinds of thinking and planning is done at the top level at Apple (McInerney, 2011). ADVANTAGES OF MANAGEMENT STYLE OF STEVE JOBS There are several advantages of the autocratic style of leadership which was adopted by Steve Jobs and these advantages are described below Standards Pre-defined In an autocratic management style, there are standards that are to be followed by the employees therefore they know what is expected of them and thus they can perform their tasks accordingly which would lead to the organizational objectives. Supervision In such a management style, the supervisors are present to guide the employees wherever they get stuck or faces problems and generally supervisors or managers are experienced and they have the

Monday, April 22, 2019

Budgeting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Budgeting - Essay ExampleRobert Worley, a flagitious referee professor at Texas pointed out that cutting prisons amenities would have staggering impacts on the way allthing would run in the prison system (Jennings, 2011). Based on the report Worley emphasized that a well fed and inmate that is happy for instance is the one that would have more positive make to cooperate, making it easy on the part of the prison administrator to manage everything as smooth as possible. The federal government and specifically the states wrestle with the countrys challenging economic times and the criminal justice system has evidently struggled to earn the undeniable adjustment, so as not to compromise the meter quality service in ensuring the maximum safety of the society (Justice Policy Institute, 2013). 1 particular opening in order to maximize the chance of survival is to consider allocating the right budget plan for the associated equal of incarceration. Policies are trying to balance ever ything, creating a way and meeting halfway the relevant needs of every concern. Although it is not an assurance that all needs will be well considered, the government is trying to pull in the most efficient way on how to implement the allocated budget for the prison system without trying to create a high value for discontentment. The above report is of important consideration because it concerns many significant unveils. One particular point is the issue about savings and the associated changes with this enterprisingness. This means the government has to understand the value of let go and the advantages and disadvantages linked up with it. It is a matter of understanding whether the associated costs would be far below the advantages to be generated. In the present time by which the US economic standing is currently recuperating, it is definitely lowering to keep everything in order just as the way when everything from the past would run smoothly for everyone. opposite signifi cant concern is the idea on how to implement the budget without creating a substantial impact on the entire prison system in Texas. This is a way too hard to employ as some prison experts and advocates would try to promote the idea of humanitarian cause. For instance, Worley tries to point out the idea of littler changes and turnover concerns. In issues like this, it is therefore important to come up with a remarkable buns and to weigh things as remarkably as possible for the benefit of everyone and not only for the chosen few. The issue of budget cuts in the prison system is very controversial as there are other relevant issues that could relate in it that in the long run would also create some necessary impacts on the society. The article tries to conclude the report by showing the amount already set up for budget implementation and the associated savings that were generated so far. In other words, the author tried to showcase twain sides of the coin and fairly have given the r eaders the opportunity to assess the governments prevailing initiative concerning the associated financial management in the prison system particularly in the state of Texas. Furthermore, the readers would have a better way to grasp the relationships between the small changes and turnover concerns. The author was trying to give us a clear perspective so as to direct us to the appropriate and necessary things to do. The on-going move to go for budget cuts in th

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Slavery in belle isle in Richmond VA Research Paper

Slavery in belle isle in Richmond VA - Research Paper ExampleThe only barrier that kept the prisoners in one place was a ditch and a wall made from earth. However, the guards shot the prisoners that wanted to safety valve and crossed the barrier. Because the prisoners were exceedingly many in the prisons, the owners of the prisons sold them or made them work for people (Takagi 43). This federal agency the congestion in the prison reduced significantly because of the consequence of prisoners sold as slaves. Therefore, the factories that existed in the island reliable labor from the slaves and made substantial profits from their quite a little. The slave trade existed in the island for nearly two blow years. The black slaves constituted the biggest number of slaves. Even after the abolition of the slave trade in to the highest degree places around the world, it did not end in the island. This is because the slave trade brought substantial profits to the traders and owners of the prison.Slave trade was particularly beneficial to the people that owned farms, factories and industries in Richmond, the owners of the island. This is because they offered cheap labor. Because the owners of the productions had many slaves, they did the work easily. The slaves bought were usually from Africa consequence that they were blacks. The economic importance of the slave trade made the trade exist for an exceedingly long time. The thriftiness of Richmond grew (Takagi 45). Because of the inhumanity that had developed towards the slave trade the trade existed for even a longer time.With time, Virginia had the biggest number of slaves in America. This was because of the prisoners held in the area as well as the agricultural demand of labor. The place depended richly on plantation farming for its economy. This means that they had to exploit the farms that they had, and this was only though slavery. Both men and women worked in the farms. After the civil war, many people in Ame rica set the slaves free (Takagi 43). Virginia

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Finance - Essay Examplestandard deviation. GARCH bewilder is used in mathematical finance for evaluating derivative securities. GARCH model works on the assumption that inherent volatility is consistent throughout the life of the derivative and do not respond in the changes of its bell (Chance & Brooks, 2009. Ans-1) Six Series Co integrate In order to complete the same, we have to recognize and lease below mentioned table and graph, Oil Gas anele JK Naph LSFO HSFO Mean 41.93075824 49.91961538 51.13502198 41.9046 34.92238 31.07245 Ans-2) Sign of Contagion From the analysis, it is clear that the mean price of JK is the highest as compared to other pricing of anoint. The mean price of the blunt oil was 41.93, which is comparatively lower than that of other line of business of services, but it deems extremely beneficial for the company as a whole (Chance & Brooks, 2009. Contingent test has frame that the price of JK would remain the same for a long span of time, merely due to lo w wavering in the merchandise. The highest fluctuation among the prices has been found among the prices of oil and Gasoil. By considering the same, it is also analyzed that HSFO has the lowest price preparation (average) as compared to other sections. ... Financial marts are those places where organizations and individuals can trade commodities, securities in bulk. Financial markets have some(prenominal) specialized and popular markets. In specialized market a single commodity is dealt where as general market trade different commodities (Chance & Brooks, 2009. A number of studies have been conducted over the relationship between crude oil and its impact on financial market in different regions and economies. These economies include both oil dominant and non oil dominant countries. As a result different interpretations were given by confused researchers of their analysis conducted (Chance & Brooks, 2009. (Park, 2007) analyzed the impact of oil supply and need gap and its impact on the concrete price of crude oil in stock market of U.S. The total impact of oil demand and supply is only on the one fifth of the stock market of U.S. It was found that the crude oil fluctuation in the international market has a greater impact on U.S. stock market (Chance & Brooks, 2009. Istemi Berk & Berna Aydogan investigated the impact made on Turkish stock market returns by the variations created in crude oil price. Vector autoregression model was applied on the secondary data of crude oil prices and National rip Exchange of Istanbul Index (ISE-100) over 21 years of data between 1990 to 2011. The study also looks into the stand between stock market returns and oil prices under global liquidity conditions (Chance & Brooks, 2009. The Turkish stock market was slightly influenced by the local prices and was greatly dependent on the global liquidity conditions (Crude Oil monetary value Shocks and Stock Returns Evidence from Turkish Stock Market under Global Liquidity Conditions , 2012). Maghyereh & Al-Kandari

Friday, April 19, 2019

Open Topic under Composite Materials Term Paper

Open Topic under Composite Materials - Term physical composition ExampleAs described in Wikipedia, there are two main kinds of pluck turbines integrity is Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and second is Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (1). However, Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are the most widely apply design for commercial purposes. Earlier standard parts and components were apply for manufacturing of turbines however, with advancement in technology, specialized poppycocks and parts started to be designed for turbines introducing alternate solutions for manufacturing (Eker, Akdogan, and Vardar 2917). UTILIZATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS IN WIND TURBINES Two or to a greater extent materials are ar layd with each other with a proper(postnominal) medium in between them to form a composite material. The fiber material is usually harder and stronger than the book binding medium (matrix) being used. This not only rearranges structural and physical properties like rigidity, toughness a nd corrosion simply also unlocks new dimensions to electrical, thermal and environmental properties of materials forming a composite. The aim of modern research is to reduce the cost, meliorate performance and impact resistance of the composite materials for their better application in a wide range of fields. These discussed significant features of composite materials have do these future materials for wind turbines (Eker, Akdogan, and Vardar 2917). In general, metallic, organic and inorganic materials called matrix, fibers, particulates, stamps and layers having check geometry constitute composite materials. The binding medium, matrix, creates a phase impact by producing distribution of other material structures in its own structure. This brings changes to overall physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the composite materials. These materials fibers, matrix and reinforcements are chemically unbiassed and dissolved among each other. It is pertinent to note that in meta llic composites even a small center of dissolution may affect the overall properties of the material (Eker, Akdogan, and Vardar 2918). Purpose of using composite material in turbine blades is to exploit one or more of the physical, mechanical and other properties of materials forming the composite. To achieve this, numbers of methods are used but the principle is same as to improve weak properties of the materials in composite to achieve a good performance turbine blade. WIND ENERGY A switch overor is the main component that is required to convert the kinetic energy of motor due to blade rotation into electrical or heart energy, and so producing a power given by following equation P = Av3 where ? = Aerodynamic efficiency unbroken ? = Density of air A = Area of tubrine-plane v = Wind velocity The two or more blades are installed on central part (disc) of turbine called rotor to form a wind turbine which is rotated by action of wind on turbine blades (Brondsted, Lilholt, and Lyst rup 506). Wind turbines usually consist of two to three large blades made of wood, plexiglass or a composite material. The basic design principle encompassing the wind turbines is that of an aero engine turbine or air plane wing where lift is used to make use of energy. Complete turbine manufacturing consisting of two or more blades is installed in vertical plane on horizontal axis into wind. In a similar fashion, wind energy is captured using same basic design principle. Stall and obstetrical delivery regulations are used to control the speed and power of

SLA Theories Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

SLA Theories - Essay ExampleFrom this study it is clear that the problem that therefore arises is that there is no jet medium of communication in regards to the difference in oral communication and therefore the attainment of the second language for the communication and proper understanding to be very effective. One major factor that needs to be accepted and owned is that when it comes to the tuition of the second language or foreign language, processes that are undergone while learning the language and the persons who are engaged in the learning of this kind of language are very often essential. This study highlights that the social condition arises to difficult in second language acquisition due to versatile situations that students find themselves in. Learners typically interact with other learners and some speakers of the target language are affected by through this process. Particular utterances, moves, and verbal exchange are the ones that determine the learners caption of the second language acquisition during learning. In such cases, hearing can be learnt in a different way resistance to understanding what has been said. This limits the acquiring of the new words or vocabularies and the sounds of those words. Activities also relate or contribute a lot to problems related to second language acquisition as used by new learners where a unique part is to be played to enhance it. Linguistic features if ignored they can contribute a lot to failure to adopt a second language acquisition during the TL which in broad refers to target language. These feature s if limited can result to its limit due to the influence of the tongue which can outdo the second language. In the provision of the solution to the problem, it is therefore quite in prepare for the putting into using various theories in the Second Language Acquisition (SLA).

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Geology Coursework 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Geology Coursework 1 - Essay specimenThe most attractive landscape boast found in Los Angeles is the parking lot (cited in Ben-Joseph, 2012). geographic data indicate that parking lots coer roughly one third of the land sphere of influence in Los Angeles. Mainly built structures mold the landscapes of Los Angeles. It is also found that certain types of rocks including igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphous rocks are some influencing elements of landscapes in Southern California. Natural changes to these rocks significantly influence the structure of the regions landscapes. References Ben-Joseph, E. (2012). When a parking lot is so much more. The New York Times The Opinion Pages. Retrieved from http//www.nytimes.com/2012/03/26/ faith/when-a-parking-lot-is-so-much-more.html?_r=1 Forman, Godron & Bertrand. (2003). Landscape ecology Definition of a multidisciplinary approach. In. F. Burel & J. Baudry (Eds), Landscape Ecology Concepts, Methods, and Applications. USA Scienc e Publishers. 4. shell boundary can be plain referred to a point where two or more plates meet. A plate boundary has altered the land in New Zealand. The plate boundary between peaceful and Australian Plates separates New Zealand territory (What on Earth, 2012). As per reports, throughout South Island, it is observed that both Pacific Plate and Australian Plate slide pass each other and this movement leads to a slim obduction of the Pacific Plate over the Australian Plate (Real Integrity Mall, 2012). Consequently, this sliding process resulted in the ecesis of Alpine Fault and Southern Alps. Similarly, in the Fiordland south region, the sliding process causes the subduction of the Australian Plate under(a) the Pacific Plate and thereby the formation of Puysegur Trench (Real Integrity Mall, 2012). The plate boundary location has changed over time. It seems that such movements cause changes to earths geological structure and ultimately alter land in which the plate boundary is located. References Real Integrity Mall. (2012). Geology of New Zealand. Retrieved from http//mall-uk.realint.com/keyword/Geology+of+New+Zealand What on Earth. (2012). Plate tectonics, spreading ridges, two-fold junctions. Australian Plate. Retrieved from http//whatonearth.olehnielsen.dk/plates/australian.asp 5. Headland is a hard feature. As Nordstrom (2000) describes, a headland can be simply defined as a land point with higher altitude and extended shape into a body of water. Headlands are comprised of harder and highly resistant rock and inlets and generally headlands are formed as a result of sea attacks on coast comprising of alternating bands of soft and hard rock (p. 108). Ultimately, this hard feature is shaped by erosion. Cape Canaveral situated in Florida is a well known example of headland. drop curtain is a soft feature. As Jackman and Wren (2000) define, a cliff is simply a rough erect rock exposure and erosion and weathering processes lead to the formation of cliff s. Studies reveal that cliffs are structured as erosions landforms, referable to rocks that are highly resistant to the processes of erosion and weathering. Sedimentary and igneous rocks are more likely to form features such as cliffs. Royal Gorge cliffs located in Colorado is an example of cliff. Reference Jackman, J & Wren, W. (2000). Developing Non-Fiction Skills. UK Nelson Thornes. Nordstrom, K. F. (2000). Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts. USA Cambridge University Press. 6. Generally, hot air

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

How Does Social Networking Affect Us Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

How Does Social Ne tworking Affect Us - Essay manikinThe analysis will seek to examine the counseling in which hearty media and the paradigm shift of fluent computing and texting pay back helped to provide a new representation of English language. In such a way both of these unique aspects will be discussed with regards to how they impact upon society. As with so many elements of lifespan and the way in which the individual integrates with society, the most important aspect which will be discussed with regards to the following two elements is in the long run a question of balance and the means by which the individual is able to integrate both with the world of friendly networking and the world of real personal communication both the world of abbreviated English and the world of standard English.According to the essaybefore delving into the extent to which social media can be beneficial for the professional, Goldsborough spends a great deal of time discussing many of the aspe cts of social media within the younger generation that give it a negative representation. In such a way, rather than whitewashing the reputation of social media and presenting the reader with an understanding that it is relevant and useful in each and every situation, the author delves into discussing the ways in which social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and others are ultimately abused by means of posting a seemingly endless flow rate of meaningless comments and perpetual updates of the my new shift of life that many of its participants feel so necessary to publish. (Goldsborough 251). The generational divide which was briefly discussed within the introduction comes into play within Goldsboroughs piece as he seeks to integrate an understanding of the fact that the older generation is almost categorically opposed and ultimately retiring(a) to adopt such a new engineering and integrate with some of the benefits that he can provide. However, as a means of seeking to evoke a level of participation from those individuals that remain and thence with regards to social networking, Goldsborough relates many of the positive ways in which social media can impact upon business creation, the small townsfolk feel of friendships and connections, and even the positive benefits of being able to spend downtime getting acquainted with new people and building a greater network of potential clients and friends. In this way, Goldsborough discusses the positive benefits that social networking can have upon the life of the professional while at the same time seeking to minimize the negative implications social networking has oftentimes been set famous for A secondary way in which social networking and the growth of technology within the past several years can impact upon individuals and society at large is with regards to the way in which language is ultimately being changed as a result of such a practice. privy Humphrys piece, I H8 TXT MSGS How Texting Is Wreck ing Our Language, the author invokes the reader will with the understanding that although language has perennially changed, texting and the engagement of abbreviated forms of speech so often referenced in the social networking world of Twitter and Facebook is ultimately

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Analysis of “High Court Curbs Claim on Privacy in a Home Essay Example for Free

Analysis of High romance Curbs Claim on Privacy in a Home EssayThe article High Court Curbs Claim on Privacy in a Home, by Linda Greenhouse was a New York Times article about a Supreme Court case. The legal issue that the Supreme Court examined was a case where the court overturned a 1997 manganese Supreme Court ruling. The Minnesota ruling protected the rights of men doing business in a semiprivate home from illegal searches and seizures. The Supreme Court however overturned the Minnesota ruling, stating that stack who were doing business in a home did not have the right to invoke their quaternate Amendment right. The Supreme Court voted 5 to 4 in the case, which led to majority, dissenting, and concurring scenes. Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, Justices Clarence Thomas, Sandra Day OConnor, Anthony M. Kennedy, and Antonin Scalia whole create the majority panorama, with Justice Scalia and Justice Thomas forming concurring sagacitys. Chief Justice Rehnquists majority opi nion was used in the article, in which Rehnquist argued that since the men in the Minnesota case were conducting business in a private home their 4th amendment right against unreasonable searchers and privacy could not be invoked.Rehnquists opinion was a inflexible mental synthesis of the constitution because his opinion reflected the intention of the original framers. philosophically Rehnquist stuck to the original framers intentions because he found no fault in the officers actions who witnessed the men committing a crime by dint of venetian blinds. Rehnquist argued that the officer was within his rights to watch and subsequently arrest the men because they had no rights to privacy, which was the goal of the original framers of the constitution because they did not grant any protections to invited guests in a persons home. Disagreeing with the majority, Justice ruth Bader Ginsburg and Justice Stephen G. Breyer both had dissenting opinions. Justice Ginsburgs dissenting opinion was a loose construction of the constitution. Ginsburgs philosophical view in the case was that the majority overlooked the rights of the invited guests because although they did not live in the home guests still had a right to privacy. However, the framers of the constitution gave no such protections. The 4th amendment states that it protects the right of the people to be secure in their person, houses, paper and effects, it made no mention of invited guest. Justice Breyer also had a dissenting opinion, but he also agreed with part of the majoritys reasoning. Breyers opinion was both a loose and strict construction of the constitution because on one hand he believed that the Minnesota men were protected by the 4th amendments privacy right. While on the opposite hand he agreed with the majority and argued that the officers actions did not violate any 4th amendment rights. Finally, Justices Scalia, Thomas, and Kennedy all had concurring opinions. Kennedys views differed from Scalia and Thomass opinions and he took a loose construction of the constitution. Philosophically Kennedy believed that social guest have a right to expect privacy while visiting a persons home, which is a loose construction of the constitution because the constitutions framers make no mention of a guests right to privacy.On the other hand Scalia and Thomas took strict constructions of the constitution. Scalia and Thomas believed that the right of the people to be secure in their person, houses, paper and effects, as stated in the 4th amendment did not include the rights of visitors in someones home, thus they stuck to the vocal interpretation the constitution. Although the Justices came to different reasoning and judgments in this case, the court ultimately made the correct decision and the Justices all made logical arguments.ReferenceGreenhouse, Linda. High Court Curbs Claim on Privacy in a Home. New York Times Archives 2 December 1998. http//query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0 7E1DB143BF931A35751C1A96E958260

Monday, April 15, 2019

Aspects of the Tragiccomedy As I Lay Dying Essay Example for Free

Aspects of the Tragic educedy As I Lay Dying EssayWilliam Faulkners As I Lay Dying is both comic and tragic in many ship government agency throughout this book. This is a story of a family who carts their dead induce, Addie, to be buried in her hometown in Jefferson. there are fifteen monologues from this book including one from Addie. The family goes through horrendous obstacles in order to complete their trip. Addie is the look and soul of this family yet she never wanted this life.Addies father would show her, The reason for living was to pay ready to stay dead a long time. 169. So she took Anse for a husband and gave him Cash and Darl. after she had Darl she made Anse promise to bury her in Jefferson when she died. But Anse wanted more kids. Addie had an affair with Mr. Whitfield and had ornament. She gave Anse Dewey Dell for the proscribe of Jewel and last Vardaman. Addie is bitter about her life and doesnt show the love and affection towards her kids provided to J ewel her favorite. As long as she is around this family the more suffering she will bring to them. tot just nowy her children except Jewel want her love and kindness but she rebukes them. In the beginning of their journey Jewel takes horse with him, but Anse is against this because he feels it is disrespectful towards Addie. Jewel should be riding in the wagon with e verybody else. They come to a bridge which has just collapsed because of the weather and the river is moving very fast. It will take the trip lasting if they go around so the Bundren family makes up a plan and goes through it. Cash and Darl make their way across the broken bridge when the wagon tips.Darl was supposed to hold on the cturnedin but kinda lets it go hoping that God will take care of her and that would end their trip. However, Jewel went into the river to rescue his dead mother from the river and foiled Darls plans. Cash has a broken leg but hes prospering because it was the same leg he had broken before so he is not begrudging it. Cash holds off on medical treatment until they bury Addie. When they come to rest at Mr. Gillippsies barn Darl has had plentiful of this trip all he wants to do is end it and send Addie on her way, peaceful like in her sleep.So Darl poses the barn on fire, livestock and all. However, Jewel comes to the rescue again and saves the coffin from being burnt. Vardaman knows Darl set the barn on fire but lke a good brother he keeps it to himself and doesnt tell anybody. The rest of the family suspects it is Darl and are going to deal with him after they bury Addie. Darl introspectively has an insight to his familys secrets. He has spy that Dewey Dell is pregnant and is going into town to get a treatment for an abortion Jewel is not Anses son, and by that thought he taunts Jewel to no end.He knows Anse is going to Jefferson for a impudent set of teeth even if he has to beg, steal or borrow. Anse takes money from Cash and Dewey Dell, and then he sells Jewels horse to pay for a new mule team to get them to Jefferson. When they do reach Jefferson Addie is passed due and ready for the ground. Anse borrows a couple spades in order to dig the grave and they determine her to rest. Betrayed by Dewey Dell and assaulted by Jewel, Darl is taken away to the asylum. Only Cash understands him only Cash and Vardaman sympathize with him.Referring to himself in the third person, a sign of extreme self-estrangement, Darl says Darl is our brother, our brother Darl. Our brother Darl is in a batting cage in Jackson where, his grimed hands lying light in the quiet interstices, looking out he foams. Yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes. To the end it is a search for kinship that obsesses Darl, and his cryptic row of affirmatives may signify a last, empty-headed effort to proclaim his brotherhood. Howe The characters in As I Lay Dying do not clearly communicate to one another.Each goes and does whatever they need to do for themselves with little regard for t he other. Addie Bundren was a very private woman and would not have it any other way I believe she passed that tone of voice to her kids. Because, if they did talk to each other maybe there would be a better bond with all of them instead of guessing and tip toeing around the matter. In this tragic comedy book the irony is perceive what you hate inside multiply itself by 5. This is what Addie Bundren created.Dewey Dell is in the same place her mom was only a little worse off because she is not married. Darl is goes mad and heads to an insane asylum. Vardaman is trying to piece everything in concert and still believes his mom is a fish. Jewel is kinder to his mother in death then he was when she was existing and I believe he regrets that. Cash has one good leg and still has his carpenter tools, hell make it through somehow. Anse cannot live without a wife so when gets his teeth in Jefferson he introduces the children to their new mother.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Muslim Women In Today’s World Essay Example for Free

Moslem Women In Todays World EssayIt is true that Moslem women argon now discovering emancipation from their old traditions and today the velum, as it is practicallytimes c anyed by the Western population has adopted many meanings for the Moslem woman. Some Islamics think of the caul as a symbol of modesty, while others place a ample emphasis on the hijab as a religious statement by Muslims. galore(postnominal) Ameri toilets pull rear end from the image of the way Muslims dress and think of it as a compact of terrorism and aggression which targets good deal who arent Muslims, while near feminists, who are mainly Ameri shadow, while many Muslims, view the hijab with other signs of significance, which is the conquest and control of Muslim women. Ideas almost Muslim women give been born by television programs that display women in Afghanistan, who are shrouded in a burqa, while being beaten be cause they are showing an ankle or a portion of their skin. Many Musli m men also are expected to dress in a modest style, wearing a turban, and other flowing garments.The way women Muslims dress is clavern as sign of the larger restrictions they take a leak to abide by in many under Muslim countries. About 10 % of the Muslim women population wears the cover or hijab. We actualize that these amounts may be increasing while more people metamorphose to the Islamic religion. Its not for certain how many Muslim women wear the hijab out of the 10,000 Muslim women. Almost twain Muslim woman who is asked, say that wearing the hijab was a decision they reached on their own. The book of account which is the Muslim holy book doesnt mandate that all Muslim women wear coverings on their heads.We translate from the volume 4124 that, Misinformation and misconception about Muslim women proliferate in the world today among non-Muslims and Muslims. I hope that sort of of falling into the typical stereotypes and cultural innovation, the information here wil l pique your interest and help you to take care the true stance Islam takes on gender issues and the role of women. The topics concerning of women Muslim in Islam is extremely controversial. Various offerings and opinions about women Muslims essential be should dealt with using caution due of the alternate opinions.We realize that the rights of Muslim women in the rule book and by the prophet Muhammad welcome made vast improvements when you compare the laws pertaining to women who live in Arabia onward the change of Islam which was that after the death of the Prophet, while the rules directed at the women in Islam started to decrease, then turn jeopardize to the pre-Islamic ways. While the womens movement of the West started to attach in strength, during the twentieth century we know that the exact aftermath took place, in the lives of the Muslims.Feminists who fight for the rights of women in the Muslim world during the twentieth century, up until nigh the 1980s, usuall y were women with money. These innovative day Muslim women used their womens lib that was shape after the feminists who were from the West. The modern Muslims world that was brought on earlier to the colonial period which was in the twentieth century began to turn from the Western models that were evident in society. The feminism that was apparent in the Muslim world started adopt Islamic styles that mocked the Western feminist ideas. This pertains not only to Muslim women.It pertains to all women end-to-end the whole portion of the third world. After removing the restraints that were present during the colonial imperialism, Muslim effeminates living in the third world are growing rapidly, resistant against the cultural imperialism sold by Westerners. Women who live in the third world are finally coming to the conclusion that even though they form many ideas that are similar, because of the securely fight of Euro-American feminists, we realize that what is surmount for Eur o-American women isnt, of course, going to be the best solution for Muslim women.Muslim women have lately started to develop a Islamic feminism that was molded from the growing concerns of the higher classed Euro American females. The variances between Western feminism and Islamic feminism deals with the topic of the veil. The veil is a scarf or head covering that is usually worn by female Muslims. Many people view this veil as oppressive to women a sign of a female Muslims obedience. It is often a surprise to Western feminists when they see that the hijab has started to get going common throughout the Muslim world.You can see the veil worn by college women who display the veil as an important symbol of their Islamic identity. We learn from Islamic scholar, Dr. Zeenat Ali, that, (Zeenat, 2007) The Mission of The New Muslim Woman is to help novel Muslim women from all around the world in gaining know takege about different issues in Islam from study how to supplicate to the roles women have In Islam. We also learn that The Mission of The New Muslim Woman is to help new Muslim women from all around the world in gaining knowledge about different issues in Islam from learning how to pray to the roles women have In Islam.Giving support and helping each other strive hard in kind our Rabb (Lord). Knowledge is the cure for ignorance. The more we learn and grow in our apprehending of Islam, the more we can Insha Allah (God Willing) increase in Emaan(Faith). We understand from listening to Isobel Coleman, that (Coleman, 2006)The Mission of The New Muslim Woman is to help new Muslim women from all around the world in gaining knowledge about different issues in Islam from learning how to pray to the roles women have In Islam.Giving support and helping each other strive hard in pleasing our Rabb(Lord). Knowledge is the cure for ignorance. The more we learn and grow in our understanding of Islam, the more we can InshaAllah (God Willing) increase in Emaan (Faith). We also understand that, The Mission of The New Muslim Woman is to help new Muslim women from all around the world in gaining knowledge about different issues in Islam from learning how to pray to the roles women have In Islam. Giving support and helping each other strive hard in pleasing our Rabb (Lord).Knowledge is the cure for ignorance. The more we learn and grow in our understanding of Islam, the more we can InshaAllah (God Willing) increase in Emaan (Faith). These criticisms are not without merit, and the ambiguity of the new constitution is a cause for concern. The centrality of Islamic law in the document, however, does not necessarily mean trouble for Iraqi women. In fact, shariah is open to a wide range of understanding, and across the Islamic world today, progressive Muslims are want to reinterpret its rules to accommodate a modern role for women.Iraqs constitution does not specify who will set which version of Islam will prevail in the countrys new legal system. But th e battle has already begun. triumph by the progressives would have positive implications for all aspects of the future of Iraq, since womens rights are critical to democratic consolidation in regenerational and war-torn societies. Allowing a full social, political, and economic role for women in Iraq would help ensure its transition to a stable democracy. Success for women in Iraq would also reverberate throughout the broader Muslim world.In every country where sharia is enforced, womens rights have become a divisive issue, and the balance struck between tradition and equality in Iraq will influence these other debates. Prime Minister Tony Blair and author Salman Rushdie praised a British official on Tuesday for raising the difficult issue of whether Muslim women visiting his office should remove their veils. The remonstrate by Jack Straw, a former foreign secretary who now is leader of the House of Commons, has plunged Britain into a debate over Islamic integration.Its important these issues are raised and discussed, and I think its perfectly informed if you raise it in a measured and considered way, which he did, Blair said of Straw during an converse with British bare Corp. television outside his office. I think we can have these discussions without people becoming hysterical each way about it. Rushdie, (Rushdie, 1989) whose book The Satanic Verses, once led to death threats against him by Islamic clerics, told BBC piano tuner that Straw was expressing an important opinion, which is that veils suck, which they do. I think the veil is a way of taking power out from women. Straw said in a publisher column published Thursday that he believes the veils lucky by some Muslim women inhibit intercourse and are a sign of division in society. At his constituency office, Straw said he asks that hide women reveal their faces, adding that the women have always complied, and a female assistant is always present. On Friday, British media quoted Straw as going further, saying that he would pick out that Muslim women not wear veils at all. I just find it uncomfortable if Im trying to have a conversation with someone whose face I cant see, Straw told the BBC.Many Muslims in Straws parliamentary district of Blackburn, in northwestern England, reacted with outrage. The uproar also left many questioning whether Britains multicultural ideals can withstand the strains of a cultural divide that is increasingly tormenting much of Europe. The difficulty of the issue was explicit during the Blair interview when he was asked if he would prefer a Muslim woman he met took off her veil. Once led to death threats against him by Islamic clerics, he told BBC radio that Straw was expressing an important opinion, which is that veils suck, which they do.I think the veil is a way of taking power away from women. Straw said in a newspaper column published Thursday that he believes the veils favored by some Muslim women inhibit communication and are a sign of division in society. At his constituency office, Straw said he asks that veiled women reveal their faces, adding that the women have always complied, and a female assistant is always present. The difficulty of the issue was obvious during the Blair interview when he was asked if he would prefer a Muslim woman he met took off her veil.The veil represents a symbolic set of rules for the Muslim Woman and many choose to do away with the scarf, in order to voice their opinions about how they feel about wearing it, and the symbolic meaning behind the veil. We understand that, (Manarj, 1998)There are some Muslims who make a big deal about trivial issues that hedge on ignorance. For example, we are told that the use of nail polish invalidates ones ablution wudo hence, some women perform wudu before applying nail polish as a workaround. Also, we are told that perfume which may contain alcohol must not be applied to ones skin, because it can get into the pores, and this is equivalent to d rinking it (i. e. the alcohol) moreover, owning a TV or camera has also been deemed prohibited (haram) by some, and so on. In fact, there are those who do not tolerate anything that was not practiced or known to the inhabitants of seventh-century Arabia. These are strange ideas to follower with the most universal and rational religion in the world. Obviously, these alien notions fossilize Islam and constitute a skilful misreading of the true Islamic messages. There is a clear understanding that Muslim women think they must keep their bodies pure and by wearing nail polish and other feminine products, in some cases they feel that they are damaging their bodies by using harmful products. Modern Muslim women are changing their ideas about the way they live and dress as they adopt more western ideas and start to become modernized, in society. We learn that some of the most serious problems that we American Muslim women face include interior(prenominal) violence, abuse of divorce and child custody laws, abuse of the polygamy system, and isolation and exclusion from various aspects of Muslim life.We are going to provide a few anecdotal cases simply to represent the depth of the problems. We have precondition the women in the stories names to make it more personable, and their identities have been changed and their confidentiality is protected. The stories are shared simply to illustrate and give life to the specific suffering of American Muslim women today. These are true stories, these are real women who have suffered. These stories were compiled by speaking with Muslim community leaders, social workers, psychologists, lawyers, doctors, mostly in southern California, but throughout the United States.We also obtained information from a thing called Sistersnet, which is an E-mail network of Muslim women throughout the United States and other countries. But unfortunately, there is no database, there is no accurate information that exists as to the frequency of a ny of these abuses that occur. Further research of these issues is desperately needed Many Muslim are face up serious social changes as they mesh into society as a modern Muslim woman. They have came a long way from past traditions and have adopted a new way of mentation and style that reflects these changes. American Muslim women face many unique additional hurdles.We are discriminated against by both non-Muslims and Muslims in America. For instance, a woman who wears hijab, which is the traditional head-covering, is often taunted at work and on the street, and the careers of a can of these women are actually jeopardizedthey are discriminated against at work and they are not given jobs. And, women who wear hijab in the United States are obvious targetsthey are obviously Muslims, and because of this they bear the brunt of the ignorance about Islam they face sexual harassment, and often their actual physical safety is jeopardized.Muslims come from different backgrounds. In America , we have immigrant Muslims, who face a whole host of problems such as xenophobia. In the U. S. in recent times, there has been a growing hostility toward immigrants, and they are often erroneously blamed for all of the socio-economic problems that we face in the U. S. , and are harassed because of that. And we have a large African-American Muslim population, and they face additional hurdles, because being part of a racial minority in the United States, they have had to deal with the problems of racism, discrimination, segregation and the vestiges of slavery.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Marriages and Families Essay Example for Free

Marriages and Families Essay be given DescriptionWelcome to Marriage and the Family Online (SOCIO 210-IN1/IN2) As the caterpillar track title suggests, we go away explore key sociological concepts related to the social institution of wedding and the family. single success in this online endure pull up stakes come to those who argon self-disciplined and work collaboratively to make the row a success. I look forward to working with all of you as we try to make guts of the worlds social forces and their impact on individual lives within marriages and the family.The Colleges formal drift description for SOCIO 101 states This course provides an understanding of sociological concepts, theories, and research methods in relation to marriage and family issues. It focuses on the ever-changing dynamics of relationships and the influence of contemporary society on family life. Special emphasis is placed on communication in relationships, dating and mate selection, love, parenting, balancing work and family, violence in relationships, and divorce (Official Course Description, Prairie realm College 2012-2014 Catalog).Course Objectives school-age childs who complete SOCIO 210 provide be able to1. Apply the major sociological perspectives to marriage and family issues. 2. Discuss the importance of communication, power, and gender in shaping relationships and family dynamics. 3. Explain the diversity of experiences for couples and families, with attention to issues of social strain, track/ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, and the life course. 4. Describe the impact of other social institutionssuch as the economy, education, religion, and the legal transcriptionon marriages and families. 5. Identify the key issues related to family violence, divorce, and successful marriages. 6. Discuss the trends involving single-parent families, remarriage, and blended families. 7. Demonstrate skills of public reckoning within context of on-line classroom discussions. 8. Demonstrate critical thinking skills through writing.9. Articulate view signals on contemporary sociological issues affecting marriages and families.Classroom PoliciesAbsence Policy As stated in the Prairie State College Board policies Regular class attendance is an essential component of successful learning. students are responsible for displace attendance and participation in all class meetings of every course for which they are registered. Students everywherehear the debt instrument to contact professors in case of unavoidable absence. Attendance in this online course is linked to your agreeable and pregnant participation in online discussions and meterly completion of assignments and chapter quizzes.Late or Missed Work/Plagiarism In order to receive full credit, all assignments must be completed and submitted by the due date. partial(p) credit may (or may not) be accepted for work submitted after the deadline. Plagiarism, or other forms of cheating, will not be tolerate d and students in violation will fail the assignment and face possible nonstarter of the course. Meeting deadlines is an essential element of this online course. Once a deadline passes, in that respect is no longer access to the course assignment. For trial runple, if a student fails to complete an attempt on a 45- token Chapter Quiz, then that student earns zero points for that assignment. missing 45 points may have significant negative consequences on a final grade.Evaluation of Student PerformanceOnline Chapter Quizzes (630 points)Our text includes 16 chapters. For each chapter, there is a Chapter Quiz. Each Chapter Quiz includes 15 quaternate choice or true/false questions and each question is worth 3 points (45 points/quiz). For the premier one-half of the course, which covers Chapters 1-8, I counting the best 7 Chapter Quiz scores toward your final grade. The Chapter 8 Quiz is an chance to improve on an earlier quiz score on one of the previous seven quizzes. For the i ndorsementhalf of the course, which covers Chapters 9-16, I also count the best 7 Chapter Quiz scores toward your final grade. The Chapter 16 Quiz is an opportunity to improve on an earlier quiz score for Ch. 9-15. In total, I count 14 quiz scores, each worth 45 points for a total of 630 points.Please note that there is a time limit of 15 minutes (with a 2-minute grace period) to complete each Chapter Quiz. The excogitation of this is so that students do not rely on their textbooks for answering all of the questions. You may use your book, besides you must read the chapter prior to taking the quiz so that you can move fairly cursorily through the 15 questions and finish within the time limit. In fact, given the high value of these Chapter Quizzes business relationship for over 60% of the total points in the courseI strongly recommend that you read the chapter near twice prior to taking the quiz. Points will be deducted for going past the 2-minute grace period (one point deduction for each minute over). I do allow two attempts, with the highest score counting toward a students final grade. I encourage recital the chapter a third time if you are disappointed with the outcome of your first attempt. Deadlines for Chapter Quizzes are typically on Sundays at 1159 p.m.Examinations (200 points) on that point is a Mid-Term Examination covering Chapters 1-8 and there is a final exam Examination covering Chapters 9-16. Each exam includes 40 questions, worth 2.5 points apiece. Each exam is valued at 100 points. There is a 45-minute time limit with a 5-minute grace period. For each minute taken beyond grace period, one point will be deducted from score.Online Class-based Discussions (170 points)For this part of the course, students participate in weeklong online conversations about the textbook material or about sociological assignments that are connected to the course material. The intent of these conversations is to encourage a close reading of our Henslin text and to reach a deeper understanding the sociological perspective on human behavior. Past students have really applauded hearing the thoughts and perspectives from their fellow classmates.There are several class-based Discussions throughout the course. The first one involves Student Introductions and takes place during Week 1 (worth 20 points). The next five Discussions are spread out over the course of the semester (Weeks 3, 5, 7, 11, and 13). Each of these Discussions is valued at 30 points and takes place across a 7-day period caterpillar tread from Monday-through-Sunday. The Discussion forum is split into two stages, with the first stage ending on Thursday (1159 p.m.) and the act stage ending on Sunday (1159 p.m.).First stage posts of 300 or more words are due on Thursday (worth 15 points), and at least one-third second stage posts of 50-75 words each (5 points each 15 points total) are due on Sunday. Your first stage posts will respond to the writing prompt I post for each Discuss ion, typically a question or set of questions. Again, as with the completion of chapter quizzes, the key challenge is meeting the deadlines. I will do my best to post points earned for the Discussions on the Monday morning following the Sunday night deadline for second stage posts. There will be a make-up Discussion offered during Week 15 of the semester.hither is a breakdown of the components of the course and point valueOnline Chapter Quizzes (14 at 45 points each)630 points Online Discussions (5 at 30 points addition 20 points for Intros)170 points Mid-term Examination (40 questions at 2.5 points each)100 points Final Examination (40 questions at 2.5 points each)100 points When assigning Final Grades, I will use the following point rangesA=900-1000 pointsB=800-899 pointsC=700-799 pointsD=580-699 pointsF=0-579 pointsSome Final ThoughtsOne of the challenges of online learning involves the issue of communication. In a traditional face-to-face course, everyone meets on a hebdomadary basis and those meetings are reminders of our course commitments. In the online environment, communication is different. I communicate frequently via email, with Email Updates roughly every week and sometimes more than once a week. The D2L system links your PSC email accounts to the class so when I send an email to all users the information is sent to the PSC email accounts of the 40+ students enrolled in this course. This information is very important and your accessing it is essential. Please note that it is possible to have your PSC email forwarded to another email addressmaybe even to your mobile phonebut I want to make receive that it is your responsibility to access the information I send to you.Whenever you have questions, contact me by email (emailprotected-1) or by phone (709-3625). Keep in mind that it is essential that you participate on a consistent basis throughout the course in order to be successful. Good luck, hold on to you hats, and enjoy what I hope will be a c hallenging and meaningful learning experience

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Different Views on Ethical Perspectives Essay Example for Free

Different Views on Ethical Perspectives Es offerWe, as human beings be to a greater extent often aw ar of our actions. Before we make decisions critical analysis comes with a great consideration. We argon able to analyze these social functions be micturate be considered as rational beings and we name the ability to ring to the highest level we can. We choose to consider whether these things are respectable or not, if its properly or wrong and if its actually needed or not this we often consider as ethics. Ethics is an issue of morality. There are things that we do that others consider wrong, but others whitethorn consider compensatelyeous.According to the night club we should act as what it considers advanced norms are iodin of the foundations of ethics and we should act accordingly. Norms can be a basis of what is virtuously right or wrong. There are four perspectives to be discussed in this paper, each of them having their own characteristics and each of them hav ing their inexpugnable points and their weaknesses. The perspectives are universally cognize as the character or virtue, deontology or the perspective of obligation, the surmisal of utilitarianism and the paleness or principle of relativism.The theory of utilitarianism points out two things iodine thing is better than the other if we could elaboration more pleasure from it, and the other thing is not that good, or better yet to say evil, if we could lonesome(prenominal) gain pain from it. This theory also states that we do things voluntarily, that one is considered as the pilot of his own decisions and that such(prenominal) consequences could have not taken place if sole(prenominal) he did or did not do such actions.The amount or quantity of pleasure or pain takes into a great consideration in the concept of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is better understood as having the maximization quantity of benefit and less quantity of sad or the pain it can cause. A soul would hav e two distinct choices, the first one is that if he does the action he would gain more pleasure or shall I say he can maximize the benefits of the action the other is that if he does the action he would have to gain more risks and consequences.The first choice would be most favored because we, as human beings would not want to touch from the choices we make, we do not want to be suffering from the consequences of our actions so what we do is do the thing that would excrete us the most favorable and maximum quantity of pleasure (Moore, 1912). Virtue is an respectable perspective that tackles rough the actions that we make and the ideals we have in life that we should strive for and that these ideals help us in developing our highest potentials as human beings.This focuses on the traits or character that one has, the dispositions in life and the attitudes whether be it bad or good. Virtues are acquired through doing it allday, they become a persons characteristic when they are pr acticed for the agelong time. There are a lot of characteristics and virtues a person can have truthfulness, patience, honesty, and courteous are some of these. Virtue would help us in pursuing the ideals that we have in life (C. A. Manuel Velasquez, doubting Thomas Shanks, S.J. , and Michael J. Meyer 1996). The theory of ethical relativism states that morality is based on the agriculture of a society. It exclusives out that one can either be wrong or right, bad or evil depending on the society the person belongs to the society is the one concerned in creating its own culture. This theory is basically called relativism because being good or bad is relative of the kind of society a person belongs to the society dictates whatever thing is perceived as good or bad.Every single society shares a common culture, this culture defines good and bad and the pile should act with accordance to the standards of the society they belong. This theory is often argued because of the fact that eve ry single society has its own culture and therefore has its own perception of bad or good. However, this theory is useful in exploring the reasons behind the differentiation of culture among societies (C. A. Manuel Velasquez, Thomas Shanks, S. J. , and Michael J. Meyer, 1992).Obligation perspective holds the golden order do not do unto others what you dont want others do unto you. It simply states that we should do what is yet right and not what is wrong. It holds the principle of doing what is good because of the obligation. Say for example, a person should tell the truth because that person is bound to have an obligation to tell the truth because he doesnt want other people not to trust him and because he upholds the value of truthfulness. This perspective is sometimes being pertained to utilitarianism, but it is totally different. term obligation is obligatory, utilitarianism is a voluntary act. After taking the ethical awareness test, I have known that what ethic perspective dominates in me is the obligation or the deontology. My perspective is based on my obligation or duty to do what is morally right. With this, I am to consider a thing as ethical if I choose how I act and what rules I am willing to oblige. It is also stated in my ethical perspective that the people should not be treated as a means to excuse an end, simply stating the end does not justify the means.I also believe that every single individual should be given the respect that any man should have and therefore I wint be able to comply with the policies and social traditions aimed at the best interest of the society as a whole. However, my approach to ethics requires legal and humane limits, I simply believe that people should be al number 1ed to make their own choices and I advocate policies that have the intention to ensure equal opportunities for all as well as equal respect. My ethical perspective upholds the principle of doing things in accordance with the standards of right and wr ong.However, though my ethical perspective aims to do what is morally right I am vistad with numbers of dilemmas with regards to work. These problems would in some manner cause me frustrations and may breaking wind to a more devastated life in the future for it is not only concerned in the present but it also pertains to the future. One of the problems I am going to look with this perspective is that the people I work with capacity argue that some people within a society are not able to act in their own best interests.I may find this a fallacy because it was once used in the denying of the equitable treatment to women and the minorities. This somehow would depart to frustration. The second problem I am to face with this perspective is that what I perceived to be morally right may not benefit most of the people. It doesnt necessarily mean that if I have perceived a thing to be morally right it would maximize the good or pleasure. This would cause me another frustration because if I had made a decision which I perceived to be right and it didnt work to be beneficial I may have doubts when I make a decision again.It might cause greater problems in the future. Another dilemma I am to face with this perspective is that defending this may end up in economic hardship in blister cases I can be terminated. Say for example, in a working place several employees should be terminated because the fellowship is having low production because these people are handicapped or they are simply not productive, the best action would be to terminate them but I, as a moralist would say that they should not be terminated because they have children.In the long run, if these people would be in the company and the company has still a low productivity the company would have losses and it may lead to closure because of the losses. Having things perceived as morally right may not be totally right some may be beneficial but some can create more problems. We as human beings should act accordingly to whatever it is that we perceive because these choices are free of charge, because God created us with the hazard of having what we call free will and should be practiced.We should not depend on what others may in making our decisions but we should also be ready for the consequences that accompany our decisions. Whatever action we do we should think of it twice, we should think that there are always two sides of a story. We should not be bounded by obligations because this might cause us greater frustrations in the future and this may lead to a very low self-esteem. We dont want these to happen thats why we should think critically and make decisions sagely because we are the pilot of our own lives.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Essay Example for Free

cristalder immunodeficiency virus (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) EssayHIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) ca go fors support (Acquired Immune wishing Syndrome) that disables the immune system.It was discovered in 1983 .HIV enters the body through the smearstream and duplicates itself rapidly.The victim is susceptible to infectious diseases that in conclusion argon fatal (1).Statistic all toldy, HIV/AIDS is the number one killer of African-American women ages 25 to 34, check to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Between 2000 and 2003, they were nineteen measure more seeming than White females and volt measure more likely than Hispanic females to contract the disease. African-American men were seven times more likely than White men and three times the rate of Hispanic men to contract HIV/AIDS (2).In 2008, there is still not a cure for AIDS.Instead, scientists contribute discovered do drugss that can let up down the progression of the disease. Protease inh ibitors (PIs) be antiviral drugs that s natural depression down the spread of HIV (1). The virus produces a protein called peptidase so that it can replicate itself.Protease cuts long chains of proteins and enzymes into shorter chains, the scratch measure in the process by which HIV infects a cell (1).If this doesnt happen, replication does not continue.In 1987, AZT was the first anti-HIV medication that was created. It showed hope and kept people healthier longer. However, the side effects were rattling high for men. Since that time, more HIV medications pay off evolved.Antiretroviral therapy usually consists of combinations of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, proteinase inhibitors, or fusion inhibitors, which are official in the later stages of HIV (19). Dual protease inhibitor therapy is also being used clinically (3).They are also associated with improving morbidity and mortality of HIV- ordained per sons (5).Although these drugs are expensive, they have proven to be the virtually successful therapy in managing HIV. However, some patients dont surveil 100% with their treatments. This is largely due to the side effects. Sometimes they make a patient feel declineed than the actual disease.The most commonly reported ones are abdominal pain, abnormal bowel movements, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, and nausea. Children usually prepare a skin rash. The more serious side effects are liver problems and pancreatitis. Some patients have also seen large ontogenesis in triglyceride ad cholesterol levels. Diabetics saw an increase in their countercurrent sugar levels. Other patients developed diabetes while taking protease inhibitors (16). Presently, nine PIs have been approved for use in the United States and Europe amprenavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, lopinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, tipranavir, and nelfinavir.Three non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are used for treatment of HIVnevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz (7). Drug treatment selection depends on factors such as drug resistance, tolerability, drug interactions, and effectiveness. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been proposed so that practitioners may better maintain appropriate plasma concentrations of drugs in their patients by identifying interactions with other medications and assessing medication adherence (7). Figure 1 shows the structures of these compounds.Fig. 1. Chemical structures of protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.About 50% of treatment-nave patients dont have continued antiviral response after one year of therapy (18). In some cases, there is a development of drug resistance and metabolic complications. Also, there is increasing turn out that virological treatment failure is correlated with variations in the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs (20). This can be due to drug interactions, meek bioavailability , and variations in metabolic enzyme activity. Atazanavir (ATV) has good oral bioavailability and a favorable pharmacokinetics profile (18). With this in mind, patients can for the most part take a once-daily dose.A separate analytical manner has been recently published for quantifying ATV in sympathetic plasma using solid phase descent and HPLC with PDA (photodiode array) catching at 201 nm (18). This method provides excellent separation of ATV from its interior standard, clozapine (CLZ) and the other PIs, thus, obtaining an right measurement of the drug (see figure 2). CLZ elutes at 8.9 minutes, and ATV elutes a 24.4 minutes. A 40-ml injection resulted in a recovery yield of 100%.Fig. 2. Chromatogram of ATV with PIs/NNRTIs (8000 ng/ml) banish with CLZnelfinavir mesylate has been shown in phase III ascendancyled clinical trials to significantly reduce viral load and increase CD4+ cell counts when used with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Its prescribed as part of triple drug combination therapy (9). CD4+ are helper T cells. They are important for immune reconstitution in patients that are receiving antiretroviral therapy (10). aft(prenominal) a large number of these cells are destroyed, AIDS develops (7). half-dozen clinical trials was conducted in the past ten years using 2, 148 HIV-infected children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group treatment trials (10). Patient ages varied from 2 to 7 years of age. The focus was to observe short-term variability of CD4 percentages. The study found that 49% of patients had CD4 percentages above 25%. 32% of patients had CD4 counts between 15% and 24% 19% were less than 15%. Finally, 5.4% had a CD4% of less than 5% (10).In June 2006, Darunavir (DRV) was licensed in the United States. It is a promising PI that is busy against HIV strains that are resistant to the other PIs that currently on the market (17). It is prescribed in 600-mg doses that are taken double daily with 100 mg of ritonavir t hat acts as a booster.Protease inhibitors are associated with unfavorable pharmacokinetics and many side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances and lipid abnormalities (5).Four of the most common PIs used are indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir (3).Monitoring blood concentration of PIs, which can indicate some(prenominal) therapeutic and toxic levels of the drugs as well as patient noncompliance with the medication, may improve the apportion of both HIV-infected adults and children (3).When ritonavir was first introduced, it was given in doses of 600 mg every 12 hours. However, patient superstition of full doses led to its primary use as a pharmacologic enhancer to increase the concentrations in plasma of a second protease inhibitor to improve the convenience of antiretroviral regimens by extending the dosing interval, reducing pill burden, and /or eliminating food-induced reductions in pharmacokinetic exposure (8).Researchers used High Performance Liquid Chro matography (HPLC) to ensure concentrations of PIs in blood.Various methods have been used to study the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Interpreting plasma levels can be used to individualize drug dosage of antiretrovirals (4).Quality control (QC) procedures must be done to ensure that these methods are accurate and precise.such(prenominal) procedures usually include intralaboratory (internal) method validation, intralaboratory QC procedures, and participation in an interlaboratory QC program for antiretroviral drugs (4). Since the latter hadnt been done before, it was set up so that laboratories can obtain better measurement results of antiretroviral drugs.Nine laboratories participated in the first part of the program.The first part of the experiment involved the measurement of the protease inhibitorsindinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir.all(a) had a specified purity of 99% or higher.QC samples were prepared by spiking ashen plasma from HIV-negative volunteers with PI standard. The low concentrated standards ranged from 0.087 to 0.15 mg/L while the intermediate concentrated standards contained ranged from 2 to 3 mg/L of all four PIs.Finally, the high-concentrated standards contained almost 5 to 11 mg/L of drug.All drugs were dissolved in methanol following accurate weighings and diluted with blank plasma (4).High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze twelve samples.All laboratories measuring more than one protease inhibitor used as search for simultaneous object (4).Six laboratories used HPLC/UV and three labs used HPLC-MS/MS. Mass spectroscopic analysis sleuthing is often recommended for measurement of low concentration levels.Also, this type of analysis is usually faster and does not require complete resolution of drugs for detection and quantification (5).Only five laboratories were able to measure all four PIs.Three laboratories were not able to determine nelfinavir.One laboratory only measured indinavir ( 4).Acceptable accuracy results are between 80% and 120%.Only indinavir resulted in an acceptable accuracy of 80%.The remaining PIs had between 36% and 74% accuracy.These results should encourage laboratories to improve their analytical methods and QC procedures.Other PIs, such as amprenavir and lopinavir, can be canvass as well (4).HIV-positive plasma samples are heat inactivated before analysis, approximately 58C for 40 minutes, to decrease the risk of infection to the operator.They may also go through a freeze/ flux cycle. As with the QC study, blank plasma was relegate with seven PIs (indinavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, lopinavir, and nelfnavir) at low, intermediate, and high concentrations measured in ng/ml.Certain assays only require 100 l of plasma for analysis.This is advantageous when measuring PI concentrations as part of clinical studies as they often necessitate hourly sampling to generate complete PK profiles thus less blood can be drawn from the patient (5).In addition, seven PIs can be quantified in one assay, but impossible to assay all seven in a integrity preparation.The use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has emerged as the developmental method of option supporting clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies (13). Recovery for the HPLC-MS/MS methods was above 87% for all seven drugs at all three concentration levels (5).It was successful in quantifying seven PI concentrations in plasma of HIV positive persons that participated in a run time of nine minutes.Therefore, the assay may be used for find out PI concentrations in semen, lymphocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid (5).A fast and exceedingly-sensitive LC-MS-MS method was developed that could analyze five protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) in one run using an internal standard. Sample sizes were small (ng/ml) and run times were approximately 5 minutes. Recoveries for all f ive PIs were between 87% and 92%(11).Tipranavir is part of a tier of non-peptidic PIs that works against both wild-type virus and variants resistant to current PIs(6).It also has a high genetic barrier.Tipranavir is prescribed in a 500-mg dose taken in combination with 200 mg of ritonavir twice daily as part of antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV-1 strains that are resistant to multiple PIs (6).Fig. 3. Tipranavir chemical structureAn HPLC-UV method has been pass and is currently applied when monitoring tipranavir (TPV) plasma levels in HIV patients.Samples were prepared for solid phase extraction (SPE) by conditioning the cartridges with 0.1% phosphoric acid, pH 7.TPV stock solutions with a concentration of 5 mg/ml were diluted from with 50% methanol. Samples were spiked with TPV at 1.875, 7.5, 18.75, 37.5, 60, and 75 g/ml in triplicate. QC samples were diluted with blank plasma and phosphate buffer to 5.625, 22.5, and 67.5 g/ml.Clozapine was used as the internal standard (6).5-ml aliquots of blood samples were obtained from HIV infected patients.The plasma obtained from centrifugation was heated at 60 C for one hour in a water bath.TPV in plasma was measured at a UV absorbance of 201 nm with a retention time of 32.2 minutes. Its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) has a retention time of 8.3 minutes (6). Figure 4 below shows the chromatogram of TPV, its internal standard, and all other PIs and NNRTIspresent. Figure 5 shows TPV and its internal standard CLZ only.Fig. 4. Chromatogram of plasma control sample of TVP (22.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard and all PIs and NNRTIs.Fig. 5. Chromatogram of calibration sample of TVP (37.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard CLZ.Isocratic HPLC methods combined with the use of UV and fluorescence detection produces more sensitivity. Amprenavir is a fluorescent compound. Its internal standard PR25 can also be seen under fluorescence (see figure 6).Fig. 6. Blank plasma with 100 ng/ml amprenavir and 1000 ng/m l of PR25 seen under fluorescence.In conclusion, much progress has been made in the development of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral therapy. HPLC with UV detection has been the most commonly used method of analysis. It is rapid, simple, and highly sensitive. LC-MS-MS has been noted at the developmental method of choice for clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies (13). More compounds can be study in less time. Also, they can be used for methods using other human biological matrices.For the mass of protease inhibitors, all side effects are not known. In 2007, darunavir was the new HIV protease inhibitor with eleven other antiretroviral agents on the market. They can affect patients that have diabetes, liver problems, and hemophilia their conditions can worsen as a result of taking PIs. 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An isocratic liquid chromatography method for determining HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor concentrations in human plasma J. of Chrom. B 848369-373.Sarasa-Nacenta, Maria, Lopez-Pua, Yolanda, Mallolas, Josep, Blanco, Jose Luis, Gatell, Jose M., and Carne, Xavier. Simultaneous determination of the HIV-protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and nelfinavir in human plasma by reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography J, of Chrom. B 757325-332.