Sunday, March 31, 2019

Types Of Data Compression Computer Science Essay

Types Of Data Compression Computer Science analyseData compression has come of age in the fit 20 years. Both the quantity and the quality of the body of literature in this report provide ample proof of this. There be m any cognize incessantitys for information compression. They are base on different ideas, are twin for different types of info, and produce different results, but they are e actu each(prenominal)y(prenominal) ground on the analogous principle, namely they compress information by removing redundancies from the master key entropy in the solution appoint. This report discusses the different types of info compression, the advantages of data compression and the procedures of data compression.2.0 DATA capsuleData compression is essential in this age because of the amount of data that is transferred within a sure(p) ne 2rk. It makes the transfer of data relatively easy 1. This section explains and compares lossy and lossless compression techniques.2.1 LOSSLESS DATA COMPRESSIONlossless data compression makes use of data compression algorithmic rules that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the squiffy data. This fag end be contrasted to lossy data compression, which does non allow the exact original data to be reconstructed from the rigorous data. lossless data compression is utilise in many operations 2.Lossless compression is used when it is vital that the original and the decompressed data be identical, or when no assurance can be made on whether certain deviation is uncritical.Most lossless compression programs implements two kinds of algorithms matchless which generates a statistical model for the stimulant data, and an another(prenominal) which maps the input data to place pull ins using this model in such a modal value that probable (e.g. frequently encountered) data will produce shorter output than tall(a) data. Often, only the former algorithm is named, while the second is implied (through common use, standardisation etc.) or unspecified 3.2.2 LOSSY DATA COMPRESSIONA lossy data compression technique is unrivalled where contraction data and its decompressing retrieves data that may will be different from the original, but is soaked enough to be useful in some way.There are two basic lossy compression schemesFirst is lossy transmute jurisprudencecs, where samples of picture or sound are taken, chopped into small segments, alter into a newfound basis space, and quantized. The resulting quantized values are thence entropy work outd 4.Second is lossy predictive jurisprudencecs, where previous and/or ulterior decoded data is used to predict the current sound sample or image frame.In some systems the two methods are used, with transform codecs being used to compress the error signals generated by the predictive stage.The advantage of lossy methods over lossless methods is that in some cases a lossy method can produce a much smaller compressed send than any know n lossless method, while still meeting the requirements of the application 4.Lossless compression schemes are reversible in-order for the original data can be reconstructed, while lossy schemes accept some loss of data in order to achieve higher compression.In practice, lossy data compression will also come to a point where compressing again does not work, although an extremely lossy algorithm, which for example ceaselessly removes the last byte of a file, will always compress a file up to the point where it is empty 5.2.3 LOSSLESS vs. LOSSY DATA COMPRESSIONLossless and lossy data compressions are two methods which are use to compressed data. Each technique has its individual used. A compression in the midst of the two techniques can be summarised as follow 4-5Lossless technique keeps the seminal fluid as it is during compression while a change of the original ascendent is expected in lossy technique but very cobblers last to the origin.Lossless technique is reversible procedur e which means that the original data can be reconstructed. However, the lossy technique is irreversible due to the disconnected of some data during extraction.Lossless technique produces biggerr compressed file compared with lossy technique.Lossy technique is mostly used for images and sound.3.0 DATA COMPRESSION TECHNIQUESData compression is known as storing data in a way which requires fewer spaces than the typical. Generally, it is saving of space by the reduction in data size 6. This section explains Huffman cryptograph and Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) compression techniques.3.1 HUFFMAN CODINGHuffman cryptograph is an entropy encoding method used for lossless data compression. The terminal figure means the use of a variable-length code table for encoding a source image (such as a character in a file) where the variable-length code table has been derived in a particular way based on the estimated probability of occurrence for each accomplishable value of the source sign. It was developed by David A. Huffman while he was a Ph.D. student at MIT, and published in the 1952 paper A Method for the Construction of Minimum-Redundancy Codes 4.Huffman coding implements a special method for choosing the representation for each symbol, resulting in a prefix code (sometimes called prefix-free codes, that is, the bit string representing some particular symbol is never a prefix of the bit string representing any other symbol) that expresses the most common source symbols using shorter strings of bits than are used for less common source symbols 5.The technique works by creating a binary maneuver of invitees. These can be stored in a regular array, the size of which depends on the number of symbols, n. A lymph gland can be either a leaf node or an internal node. Initially, all nodes are leaf nodes, which contain the symbol itself, the weight (frequency of appearance) of the symbol and optionally, a link to a parent node which makes it easy to read the code (in reverse) starting from a leaf node. Internal nodes contain symbol weight, associate to two child nodes and the optional link to a parent node.The process practically starts with the leaf nodes containing the probabilities of the symbol they represent, and then a new node whose children are the 2 nodes with smallest probability is created, such that the new nodes probability is equal to the sum of the childrens probability. With the 2 nodes combined into one node (thus not considering them anymore), and with the new node being now considered, the procedure is repeated until only one node remains, the Huffman tree 4.The simplest construction algorithm is one where a priority queues where the node with lowest probability is given highest priority 51. Create a leaf node for each symbol and add it to the priority queue.2. time there is more than one node in the queue leave out the two nodes of highest priority (lowest probability) from the queue.Create a new internal node with these two nodes a s children and with probability equal to the sum of the two nodes probabilities. work the new node to the queue.3. The remaining node is the root node and the tree is complete 7.Figure (1).3.2 LEMPEL-ZIV-WELCH (LVW) COMPRESSIONLempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) is a data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch. It was published by Welch in 1984 as a development of the LZ78 algorithm published by Lempel and Ziv in 1978. The algorithm is designed to be fast to implement but is not usually optimal because it performs only limited analysis of the data.LZW can also be called asubstitutionalor vocabulary-based encoding algorithm. The algorithm normally builds adata dictionary(also called atranslation tableorstring table) of data occurring in an uncompressed data spud. Patterns of data (substrings) are identified in the data stream and are matched to entries in the dictionary. If the substring is not present in the dictionary, a code say is created based on the d ata content of the substring, and it is stored in the dictionary. The phrase is then compose to the compressed output stream 8.When a reoccurrence of a substring is found in the data, the phrase of the substring already stored in the dictionary is written to the output. Because the phrase value has a physical size that is smaller than the substring it represents, data compression is achieved.Decoding LZW data is the reverse of encoding. The decompressor reads the code from the stream and adds the code to the data dictionary if it is not already there. The code is then translated into the string it represents and is written to the uncompressed output stream 8.LZW goes beyond most dictionary-based compressors because it is not requisite to keep the dictionary to decode the LZW data stream. This can save quite an a bit of space when storing the LZW-encoded data 9.TIFF, among other file formats, applies the same method for graphic files. In TIFF, the pel data is packed into bytes t o begin with being presented to LZW, so an LZW source byte great power be a pixel value, part of a pixel value, or several pixel values, depending on the images bit depth and number of colour channels.GIF requires each LZW input symbol to be a pixel value. Because GIF allows 1- to 8-bit deep images, there are in the midst of 2 and 256 LZW input symbols in GIF, and the LZW dictionary is initialized accordingly. It is not important how the pixels might have been packed into storage LZW will deal with them as a sequence of symbols 9.The TIFF approach does not work very easy for odd-size pixels, because packing the pixels into bytes creates byte sequences that do not match the original pixel sequences, and any patterns in the pixels are obscured. If pixel boundaries and byte boundaries agree (e.g., two 4-bit pixels per byte, or one 16-bit pixel every two bytes), then TIFFs method works surface 10.The GIF approach works better for odd-size bit depths, but it is difficult to direct i t to more than eight bits per pixel because the LZW dictionary mustiness become very large to achieve useful compression on large input alphabets.If variable-width codes were implemented, the encoder and decoder must be careful to change the width at the same points in the encoded data, or they will disagree about where the boundaries between individual codes fall in the stream 11.4.0 CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, because of the fact that one cant hope to compress everything, all compression algorithms must assume that there is some bias on the input messages so that some inputs are more likely than others, i.e. that there will always be some unbalanced probability distribution over the possible messages. Most compression algorithms base this bias on the structure of the messages i.e., an assumption that repeated characters are more likely than random characters, or that large white patches occur in typical images. Compression is therefore all about probability.

Physics of the Heart

Physics of the HeartElectrocardiographyElectrocardiography is the arrangement of the galvanizing of the flavor by a non-invasive procedure. This is possible beca commit the personate is an electric conductor, the ECG work acts as a voltmeter and voltage duration characteristics be mea currentd by attaching electrodes to the endurings skin.Electrical itchs created by the conducting weave of the tenderness and soul are picked up. The Sino Atrial Node (a small area of heart that triggers muscle muscular contraction, acting as a pacemaker) is located at the happen of the proficient atrium and sends a jounce of electrical activity down the right atrium. Another jolt of electrical activity is sent by the auriculoventricular boss down the Bundle of His once the electrical activity by the SAN is received. There is a small delay before the AVN sends a wave of electrical activity, this is to allow the atria to empty fully before the ventricles contract.The ECG machine detect s and amplifies electrical impulses (waves of depolarisation) initiated by the SAN. Each of the heart muscle cellular ph unitys in the body generate a negative charge (at rest) this is called the membrane potential. The muscle cells have a negative charge because an active transport mechanism in the cell membrane maintains an excess of cations on the outside, and an excess of anions inside. This means there is a potential difference across the membrane. In the heart it is typically about 70 mV for atrial cells and 90 mV for ventricular cells. Decreasing the negative charge towards zero, via the flooding of cations (Na+ and Ca2+) into the cell, is called depolarisation which ultimately causes the cell to contract.A sound heart will have a typical wave of depolarisation that is initiated by the SAN, spreads out through the atria, reaches the atrioventricular node and spreads all over the ventricles. The potential difference due to the hearts electrical activity is measu chromatic by cardinal electrodes (one positive and one negative). If the electrical impulse travels towards the positive electrode the result is a positive deflection. If the impulse travels way from the positive electrode the result is a negative deflection.Electrodes are typically placed on the arms, leftover leg and one or to a greater extent over the heart. This religious services to minimise signals from other muscle cells in the body. This foundation dish up a cardiologist to understand what is happening in different split of the heart.The electrical impulses are translated into a waveform. The resulting ECG trace has a characteristic shape with sections that are labelled P, Q, R, S and T. Abnormalities in the shape of the wave are used to identify heart problems such as instant contractions of the heart. The heart has a zero potential difference across it, the contraction of the atria produces a P wave (The PQ interval represents the delay to allow the ventricles to fill). The contraction of the ventricles then produces the QRS complex. Finally the T wave shows the relaxation of the ventricles. The period (R-R interval) is the time between adjacent peaks in the ECG trace. In a healthy person this varies by up to 10% between each heart beat. Heart rate is determined by averaging over multiple heart beats (Heart rate = 1/average period). The heart rate in beats per minute is equal to the frequency in hertz (Hz) x 60.The Physics of the Artificial HeartIn artificial hearts (such as the one made by AbioCor), the electronic kit is implanted in the abdomen of the person receiving the transplant to monitor and regulate the pumping of the artificial electronic heart.Power is supplied from an external battery pack to components inside the patient, without penetrating the skin, using inductive electromagnetic coupling. A principal similar to this is used by transformers in the national grid. The internal battery can provide up to 40 minutes of power when disconnect ed from the external battery pack, for when the patient may want to have a shower for example.In transformers, an electrical current passes through a wire wound rough a core, called the primary lock. Another wire is wound around the same core, this is called the vicarious coil. If the two coils have the same number of turns around the core, it allows the primary coil to pass an exact copy of its electrical current to the secondary coil. These types of transformers are normally called isolation transformers. This allow two circuits to be electrically coupled, without the two circuits actually coming into direct physical contact. The image on the left shows a typical isolation transformer but the one used in this case is considerably smaller in size.The patient is constantly mournful so it is quite difficult to keep the two coils aligned. This is important because the go down level of energy inescapably to be rapture wild via the wireless energy transfer system so that there is no excess transferred as soup up to the surrounding tissue of the patients body this could cause expert damage. Also the components need to be small enough to be carried around without too much discomfort.Furthermore, the artificial heart needs to be suitable to monitor the flow of blood to maintain its pumping action and make sure the correct amount of blood is being pumped. The rate of the pumping of the blood needs to be altered when the patient requires more or less oxygen, for example more oxygen is required during higher rates of respiration. Blood-flow monitors make use of ultrasound ultrasound is used because the flow of blood can be monitored without having to be in contact with it. High-frequency sound waves are reflected off red blood cells coming out of the heart. The volume and speed of the blood can be measured using similar principles to those behind radar. The movement of these red blood cells, either towards or away from the transmitted waves, results in a frequ ency shift (due to the Doppler Effect) that can be measured. This data can help the system to determine the speed and direction of blood flow in the heart.Bibliographyhttp// document/heart/http// Parker (2009).The Concise Human proboscis Book. London Dorling Kindersley Limited. p154-155.Adam Hart-Davis (Editor-in-Chief) (2009).Science, The Defini tive Visual Guide. London Dorling Kindersley Limited. p406-407, p448.Word conceive (excluding Bibliography and Headings) 991

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The causes of global warming

The origins of spherical meltingIntroductionWith the quick development of economy, the issue of the ca substance abuses of foundationwide calefacient has been brought into public focus. The reason is that planetary calefacient results an increase in the ordinary temperature of the earths atmosphere, which forces gays invigoration, animals living, and plants growth. However, more than or less of people state that the most significant reason of the cause of world(a) warm is a graphic phenomenon. As a matter of fact, it is red-brick anthropogenic global warming. In this inquiry paper, I delegate to research this thorny subject from five aspects. There be tribe, eating vegetable marrow, pets, woodland destruction, and air pollution. In addition to examining causes, I lead withal carry on some briefness of the set up of the global warming. First of all, I lack to begin my research paper with three definitions of the key ward global warming. I will provide a brief verbal description of the causes of global warming.Definition First of all, according to my research paper topic the causes of global warming. I want to begin with the keyword global warming. It means an increase in the earths atmosphericalal and oceanic temperatures (Merriam-Websters Online Dictionary). Therefore, when people let out global warming, it is a fact that people atomic number 18 living in a earth where the temperature is becoming higher and higher. The cause of global warming refers to the global temperature increasing. The cause global warming is mainly due to gracious beings in pricyly a century, using a lot of fogy fuels ( much(prenominal) as coal and oil), discharging prodigious amounts of degree centigradeic acid gas and other nursery gases, tether global warming. The consequences of global warming will lead to a global redistribution of precipitation, melting glaciers and permafrost, and rising sea levels. Not only global warming endangers the bala nce of subjective ecosystems, but also it threatens clement food submit and living environment (Rationalwiki).From internet, I also get some particular proposition definitions. The online dictionary says that global warming is an increase in the earths average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in humour and that may result from the greenhouse effect ( In other sources, Wikipedia claims that global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans since the mid-twentieth century and its projected continuation (Wikipedia). In other words, the fleck means that people are living in a federal agency where the temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans is raising constantly and the different species are continually decreasing. That is a very(prenominal) critical condition that people in face ,because adult male can not live in that high temperature and the resources of mans living are r educing in that situation. Description of the causes of global warming good deal read paid most attention on the different rendering of the causes of global warming, at the same time it raises the debate on the policy-making and economic. Global warming is caused by many things. The causes are split up into two groups, man-made or anthropogenic causes, and natural causes. The Interg all overnmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity such as fossil fuel animated defo simplenessation (Wikipedia). From this section, it is no exaggeration to say that the most all-important(prenominal) reasons for this situation people who be confronted with global warming is resulted from human themselves. Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has change magnitude the smount of greenhouse gases in the atmosph ere, leading to increase radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. The concentrations of CO2 and methane wear increased by 36% and 148% respectively since the mid-1700s (Wikipedia). From this definition, we can simply bring in the causes of global warming. The source of global warming is from the CO2 of the air and fossil fuel burning has produced about three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 course of studys, however most of the rest is due to de toneation. Most of scientists believe that a large number of emissions of greenhouse gases caused by increased greenhouse effect may be the fundamental causes of global warming.The Causes of Global Warming Now I will prove the causes of global warming, thither are five causes of global warming 1) population (The Canadian Press, two hundred9 and CBC News) 2) eating meat (Juliette Jowit, environment editor The Observer, sunshine 7 September 2008) 3) pets (Cathal Kelly Feature writer) 4) forest destruction and 5) burning. I intend to provide a brief description for each cause.Population As we know from the Canadian press, some experts said that in developing countries offer contraceptives to women could slow polish climate change through presenting population growth. In this report, it said that as a matter of fact over 200 million women want contraceptives but they do not keep them. However, it results in 76 million women conceive without consciousness every form (The Canadian Press, 2009). In other ways, the editors say that if those women had some ways to keep the lighten condoms or other birth-control ways, the rates of population growth would increase slowly. thence it is possible that the pressure on the environment would decrease. It is because we breathe out CO2 into air that the CO2 contributes to global warming. It is said that the population around the world will rise to 9 billion by 2050, in which over 90 per cent of that gr owth is from developing countries (The Canadian Press, 2009). The most important is that experts state that although the normal population growth is not a real(a) increase in global warming, but overpopulation also could result increased demand for food and shelter, which could threaten the environment because it brings global warming with untold CO2 (The Canadian Press, 2009). In recent years, one of the main factors that the rapid increase in population is leading to global warming. Meanwhile, this is a undecomposed dangerous situation affecting a balance between the natural ecological environment. So many people, only its own emissions of carbon dioxide per year would be an amazing figures, the result will directly lead to the sum system of atmospheric carbon increasing (CBC News, 2008).Eating meat The indorsement cause I want to discuss is that UN says eat less meat to curb global warming ( THE OBSERVER). The editor said that people should perish up eating meat on one day per calendar week if they want to help solving climate change. Dr Rajendra Pachauri (chair of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change) also said that people should then go on to reduce their meat consumption even further. However, his comments are very controversial ideas and added on how mortalals can help solve global warming. On the other hand, Dr Pachauri also stressed other ways in modus vivendi would help to curb global warming. He provides his advice to the food industry, and hoping food industries reduce meat consumption. Because if people stopped buying imported food, people would excuse a lot of carbon emissions. He said that if the average UK mansion halved meat consumption that would abridge emissions more that if car use was cut in half (Dr Rajendra Pachauri from Pet A third cause of global warming is about pet. According to New Zealand-based researchers Robert and Brenda Vale (CATHAL KELLY, feature writer The Toronto Stan) said that a great many household pets chew up more resources than a lot of cars. According to their figures, feeding a medium-sized chase after for a year has twice the environmental impact of driving a luxury SUV for 10,000 killometres. It means that a dogs food in a year is equal to a persons food consumption. Vale said that if a person want a big dog, maybe he or she should be a vegetarian and take the bus (Brenda Vale from The Toronto Stan). This cause is related to the aid cause eating meat. Some pets only eat meat, so it is unrealistic that let those pets be vegetarians. Therefore, Vale advices that people should limit themselves to eco-friendly, vegetarian pets, like hamsters or rabbits (Brenda Vale). So people can image that pets food consumption is an amazing. wood Destruction Around the world, due to natural or man-made factors are causing forest area dropped significantly, which has also been a controversial topic. Because atmospheric concentrations of c arbon dioxide is increasing and that it showed the trend of faster and faster. One of major cause is forest destruction. For fuel in living, using forests is one cause of deforestation. Because the use of forests for wood and charcoal, people have to use them from forests. However, deforestation let large amounts of carbon increasing, and then it will threaten global warming. The most important function of forests is on that point can absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Rainforests breeze the important role of locking of locking up atmospheric carbon in their vegetation via photosynthesis ( . It is reported that when forests are burned, degraded or cleared, will have the opposite effect a lot of carbon in the atmosphere is being transformed into carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (Rainforests). deforestation is one of the causes to global warming, and it also is the most important reason raise greenhouse effect. It is said that tropical defor estation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. In many tropics, forests can continue our air from pollution because trees can remove carbon from the atmosphere during the transition of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the air during normal respiration (Wikipedia.). fireThe final cause I want to provide is burning. A instant major cause of global warming has been burning gasoline for transportation. Since the industrial era in 1750, human activities have increased the degree of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In living, burning is using in many aspects such as transportation and industries. In nowadays, there are many cars that burning gasoline in many developing countries. On the other hand, there are also many industries that burning coal and oil, again there are thermal power stations that burning coal and oil. At present, human activity of carbon dioxide is more than 20 times of natural sources of carbon dioxide (Wikipedia). Bur ning of fossil fuels results in higher carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for two main reasons first, the rapid increase in population, second, the rapid increase in consumption of fossil fuels in industrialization in the development of human society. All aspects of that burnings are making atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased (Wikipedia).The effects of global warming The effects of global warming has been brought into human attention. Human health depends on good ecological environment. It is said that global warming will be the most factor that effecting human health. Extreme high temperature will be the next century plagued human health, which will also become more frequent, more widespread (Wikipedia). On the other hand, global warming effects water stressed. Global warming affects drinking water and agriculture in some coastal zones. Because global warming firstly effect climate change, then increased evaporation will decrease the effectiveness of reservoirs (Wikipedia). goal As we can see from this paper, I discuss five causes that have severely affected the global warming. There are pollution, eating meat, pets, forest destruction, and burning. Every cause of global warming is connected with another one. From the industries starts to present, human activity continually create different effects to global warming.However, human beings are constantly research the causes of global warming, the researchers hope that in the near future they can find some way to slow down the speed of global warming. Because, after all, the reasons of global warming is result of human, so the solution also begins with human.From the impacts of global warming, the main factors are the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Human not only increase the carbon dioxide emissions, but also increase deforestation reduction of carbon dioxide.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Extensive Reading With Young Learners English Language Essay

Extensive Reading With junior Learners side of meat Language auditionIn this essay, I leave alone discuss spacious involveing with Young Learners, and how extensive adaptation jackpot be promoted, with reference to young necessitateers in Hong Kong. Children learn to bear witness in English in schools in Hong Kong at an early age, solely at that place is little get aheadment for them to read for purposes reinvigorated(prenominal) than to learn the delivery. I go out examine the benefits of extensive development, in finicky peasantrens stories, and how these washbowl be utilize to promote extensive reading with primitive learners in my watching background at the British Council Hong Kong.Why extensive reading?Day and Bamford (1998, 4) contend that the type of reading through in ESL dividees bears little resemblance to reading done in the real introduction, and that in fact students learning to read a bit wrangle do not read and they do not motive reading . Reading in the carve uproom tends to be done rigorously in order to teach or review a words point, or to train students for an exam. However, It is simple exactly depend commensurate that the more than students read, the better they become at it (Day and Bamford 1998, 4). Teachers thus need to find modes of encouraging students to read that atomic number 18 pleasurcapable and motivating for them, and more closely resemble the kind of reading that is done unwrapside the classroom.Extensive reading, is any(prenominal) reading that is done either for am workoutment or not explicitly for the purposes of teaching reading. (Emery 2009, 38). This bathroom be any type of textual matter, whether fiction or factual. With this type of reading, the readers attention should be on the mean, not the row, of the text (Day and Bamford 1998, 5). As children focus on meaning when learning a language, extensive reading should then specificly draw in to them as a way of learning English, especially if the texts argon of types that they would normally read in their first language. Language learning from reading comes from image to the language, but is not the primary aim of extensive reading.Clark and Rumbold (2006, 9) list the following benefits of reading for pleasurereading attainment and writing abilitytext recognition and grammarbreadth of vocabularypositive reading attitudes, which be linked to effect in readinggreater self-confidence as a readerpleasure in reading later in lifeAlthough their enshroud was regarding native speaker children in the UK, they note that these benefits atomic number 18 equally true for second language acquisition. It appears, then, that extensive reading is crucial for literacy development.In Hong Kong, there is little interest in reading for pleasure, p deviceicularly in English (Ho 2008, Leung 2005). Taking into account the above benefits of reading for pleasure, it seems crucial to bring forward a love of reading e xtensively in our students in Hong Kong, some(prenominal) in spite of appearance and outside the classroom.Why stories?First and fore almost, children enjoy stories. Stories are particularly crucial in the lives of our children Childrens hunger for stories is constant (Wright 1995, 3). If we provide children with stories, they will be do to read and listen to them. Reading stories in the classroom is a divided withalt, which encourages social skills, frequently(prenominal) as cooperation, collaboration, listening and turn taking and sponsors to compose appropriate affective conditions for learning to take place (Read 2008, 7). We back in any case provide them with the means to read stories for themselves outside the classroom, increasing their exposure to language further.Children are similarly aware of and enjoy stories in their first language From their early ensure, children are likely to be familiar with point or narrative structure (Cameron 2001, 129). This mean s that, unlike galore(postnominal) classroom activities, the corpulent or reading of a reputation will be a familiar activity. Even if reading intelligences and stories are not commonplace in the home, children will aim had exposure to stories through a variety of opposite media, e.g. films and cartoons. Children are therefore more likely to be receptive to a baloney than an activity which is not so familiar and therefore potentially conf utilize. Stories fulfill childrens need for present and novelty (Cameron 2001), as there is the security of the familiar structure of the story, with a beginning, introduction to characters, a problem which is resolved, and an ending, and likewise the novelty of new stories, characters and plot of land surprises.Stories provide a clear context from which children lav find meaning. The meaning and role of the story are the most important for children, and the meaning of the language is loseed by the context. They work out the meaning fi rst and tend not to pay attention to the linguistic process that are exercising to express the meaning (Moon 2000, 5).Stories are a lively source of language. Beca do stories are designed to entertain, writers and tellers adopt and use words with particular care to keep the audience interested (Cameron 2001, 163). Many words and phrases are a good deal repeated throughout a story, increasing students exposure to them, and also helping to create the sense of security and familiarity. Through such(prenominal) exposure to language children are learning new vocabulary, frequently without realising it (Cameron 2001, 164), and the instructor can also ferment this vocabulary in classroom activities. Moreover, this vocabulary is apply within a clear context, so Children countenance the ability to persevere meaning even if they dont understand all the words (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 8). Heathfield (2009, 17) refers to his own experience of story relative with elementary Italian lea rners, who were able to follow and understand the general meaning of stories told in English.Attention can be paid to vocabulary and students verity once the context and meaning have been established. Stories provide children with exposure to not only vocabulary, but also to the structure of sentences and the general feel and unspoilt of the foreign language (Wright 1995, 5). If stories are read aloud, children have exposure to the pronunciation of the language, its rhythm and intonation. This exposure helps them with their fluency, both written and spoken, when they are later progress to to move to more productive use of the language.Stories also contain a variety of themes and topics which can be interesting and relevant to the students themselves, or can be exploited in the class. These themes can be linked to an other(a)(prenominal) subjects crosswise the curriculum. They can also help develop childrens awareness of the world most them, or of different cultures. Stories ca n also be utilize as a stimulus for speaking and writing, and exercise the imagination (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 1).Cameron (2001, 160), warns, however, that we should not allow our feelings of nostalgia and fond memories of childhood stories to colour our perceptions of the magic of stories. She notes that the classroom is not the same as the family home, and the teacher is not a parent, so we should encompass a more critical stance to use stories in class, both in our choices of stories and the way that we use them, and to be open to using other text types which may be equally greeting to children. We should also be aware that stories are also available through other media than halts, e.g. enliven cartoons or TV programmes, and it is very likely that children may be even more receptive to these forms of media than traditional contains.Choosing storiesThe stories used with children should first of all appeal to them (Phillips, 1993, 46), whether it is the theme, the illustra tions, or the fact that it is a story which is familiar to them and they know they will enjoy it. A good story is simply one that listeners or readers enjoy (Cameron 2001, 166). The story should have interesting characters that the children can relate to and a clear plot, with possibly a surprise at the end.The length of the text should be appropriate, i.e. for beginning readers using bears with shorter texts will promote success and motivating. The language used in the agree should also be simple enough for them to understand, but also contain some language which is beyond their legitimate level in order to develop learning and language development. The child should be able to build on familiar language with new language, but not be demotivated by reading something beyond their level. A story which uses a lot of repeated structures and vocabulary will help reinforce meaning, and children also enjoy the repetition.The illustrations used in a intensity are also important, as t hey not only make the book more appealing to a child, but can also support the meaning of the text and new vocabulary and stimulate their imagination (Hsiu-Chih 2008). The themes of the story can also help children to understand more most the world, but should have appropriate values and portrayals of characters. If a story is being used in class, one could be used which fits the topic of the lesson. at that place are many graded readers available for young learners, in which language is carefully selected to match the childs level of English. However, the language is often simplified in these readers to such an extent that the language becomes unnatural, for example present tenses are used throughout, whereas in certain literature a story is nearly al shipway told using past tenses. As Cameron (2001, 166) comments, It seems a pity to deprive learners of opportunities to hear accredited uses of past tense forms I can see no inner reason for supposing that use of the past tense would prevent children understanding a story. Cameron also points out that although many text books for young EFL learners contain stories, they often lack the prototypical features of a story, such as a plot with a a problem to be resolved, and a satisfactory ending. These stories are unlikely to capture childrens imaginations in the same way that stories can do (Cameron 2001, 162). Quality stories have characters and a plot that engage children, often the art work is as important as the text in telling the story, and they create a strong feeling of satisfaction when the end is reached (Cameron 2001, 166).There are many arguments for providing children learning English as a second language with real books offering a rich source of authentic input and challenge (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 8). These stories are more likely to contain the elements requirement in a quality story as described by Cameron, and children can feel highly motivated by being able to understand a story which ha s not been simplified. There is also such a wide variety of authentic story books which makes it easier to choose something which will appeal to many different children.Ellis and Brewster (2002, 8) note that it can be argued that the language in authentic story books can be too entangled for children learning English, magic spell the content may be too simplistic for their age if a book is chosen which has been written for a jr. target age. They argue that In a foreign language, however, children are often very happy to accept stories which they may reject in their pay back tongue. Although care needs to be taken to select books which will appeal to the child, what is important is the way that the story is exploited and the language learning back up for the childrens particular level. It is what we expect the children to do which determines the proficiency level required, not the story itself (Wright 1995, 3).It is also important that the child, not just the teacher or parent, c hooses the books that they would like to read. Clark and Rumbold (2006, 22) stress the importance of children choosing their own reading material on pauperism and acheivement. They refer to Krashen, saying that students who choose what they read tend to be more motivated, read more and show greater language and literacy development. Cameron (2001, 164) believes that children may learn vocabulary while listening to stories without realising it, and learner involvement with a story may be what makes a difference letting children choose the stories they want to hear may help maximise the learning that takes place. They will be more likely to choose books that interest them, and therefore be more motivated to understand and engage with the text. It is difficult to place too more than emphasis on the role interesting material plays in the commit to read (Day and Bamford 1998, 29).Using stories and promoting extensive readingThere are many ways in which extensive reading and reading stories can be promoted both inside and outside of the classroom, which I will discuss in relation to my current teaching context.In the classroom, the teacher can use stories in a variety of ways, both to promote reading and to exploit stories for further language work. Reading stories aloud to the class is an effective way of exposing children to story books and their narrative structure. From listening and watching an adult read aloud, children can see how texts are handled, how texts encode words and ideas, how words and sentences are laid out on a page Affectively, reading aloud can motivate children to want to read themselves (Cameron 2001, 141). The telling of the story should be an enjoyable experience, and, if possible, the classroom arranged so that all children are sitting around the teacher, maybe on the floor, so that everyone can see the book (Wright 1995). The teacher should take care to hold the book so everyone in the class can see it, and use mime, gestures, faci al expressions, the stress and intonation of their voice, and the pictures in the book, to help students understanding (Ellis and Brewster 2002, Read 2008). Students should be encour remote to participate in the story reading through questions which reinforce understanding, e.g. describing the pictures, or making predictions about what happens next. The teacher can help students with new and difficult vocabulary by providing tasks to pre-teach vocabulary, and follow up with activities which consolidate the language and help students to recall the story. above all, the story and related activities should be enjoyable for the students. Favorable feelings for and experiences with the teacher, classmates, materials, tasks, procedures, and so on, can forge positive attitudes toward reading in the second language (Day and Bamford 1998, 25).At the British Council Hong Kong literacy texts have been incorporated into the syllabuses for the higher level primary classes for students aged 8 an d above. These are generally texts which are used in schools in the UK to teach literacy in the British National Curriculum, with accompanying teachers notes and materials these are unremarkably adapted to suit the EFL and local contexts. The texts chosen are for a young age group than they would be in the UK, i.e. materials for British children aged 8 to 9 are used in classes for Hong Kong learners aged 10 to 11. These have proved to be overwhelmingly popular with teachers, who report that they enjoy using them and find that students also enjoy the stories whilst being stretched, because they can see that the materials are authentic and feel a sense of achievement.Many teachers also use storytelling in class, as story books are readily available in Hong Kong. These teachers appreciate the value of using story books in class, and find storytelling an enjoyable activity in class themselves. Some teachers use story books not just for teaching purposes, e.g. the introduction/consoli dation of language or to balance the course book materials, but also for a story time slot. Often at the end of the lesson, the story time slot is used as part of the classroom routine and settles children. The stories are read purely for enjoyment, and if enough books are available (some teachers have their own story book collection) students are able to choose which stories they would like to hear.For younger primary students book boxes are provided with a selection of suitable books, which teachers are support to use with their classes. nonpareil advantage of the book boxes is that with a selection of books children are able to choose for themselves what the would like to read, or what they would like the teacher to read. Other ways of encouraging children to choose and read books would be to have a book break in the classroom or a lending subroutine library for children, so that children could enjoy reading by themselves either in class or at home. Unfortunately, neither o f these are currently feasible at British Council Hong Kong. The classrooms are used by many different classes, including adults, so it would not be practical to set up a corner of the classroom with books. There is also the issue of funding book corners or a library with approximately 3,500 primary students currently taking courses at the British Council, the cost of buying sufficient books for either scheme is prohibitive.One scheme which has been successfully introduced for primary classes is a Reading Challenge. Students are encouraged to read books in English and write brief reviews of them. After they have read six they receive a prize of a certificate and a book. The success of the scheme seems to depend largely on how much the individual teacher promotes it, but prizes have been earned by students across a range of classes, not only in the highest levels or elder age groups. Clark and Rumbold (2006, 20), in a review of studies examining the effect of reward on motivation, c onclude that we cannot be certain that rewarding children for reading actually motivates them to read more, or if they do so, that they are reading purely to get a prize and will not continue to read widely in the future. However, if a reward is given for reading, it appears that literacy-targeted rewards, such as books or book vouchers, are more effective in developing reading motivation than rewards that are unrelated to the activity.The most important factor, however, in developing childrens literacy and enjoyment of reading is the involvement of their parents (Clark 2007, Clark and Rumbold 2006, 24, Wood 1998, 220). The British Council Hong Kong has recently introduced parent workshops to encourage parents to read with their children, emphasising the importance of reading not only for literacy and educational attainment but also social and emotional development. Parents are also shown how to choose appropriate books and how to read them with their children, exploiting the storie s and the pictures. These workshops are proving to be very popular with parents, who, while keen to encourage their children academically, had previously not realised the benefits of reading for pleasure. finisThere is not on the whole a culture of reading in Hong Kong, but, given the advantages outlined of extensive reading, it is particularly important to encourage our students to read for pleasure, and using story books can be particularly effective. This requires not only access to suitable texts, but also training for teachers and parents on how to read books with children and develop further language use.(3,204 words)

Intelligent Software Agent

profound softw argon system package product divisorChapter 1 quick Softw atomic number 18 component1.1 clever elementAn cistron give the gate be defined as follows An promoter is a software thing that k straightways how to do things that you could probably do yourself if you had the time (Ted Seller of IBM Almaden Research Centre). A nonher rendering is A piece of software which per gives a given task utilise culture gleaned from its environment to act in a suit suitable air so as to complete the task success goody. The software should be able to adapt itself base on trades occurring in its environment, so that a change in circumstances give still yield the intended results (G.W.Lecky Thompson). 1 2 3 4An able divisor sack up be divided into weak and strong notations. gameboard 1.1 shows the properties for both the notations.Weak notationStrong notationAutonomyMobility hearty abilityBenevolenceReactivity ProactivityRationalityTemporal continuityAdaptivity dest ruction orientedCollaborationTable Intelligency intelligence activity refers to the ability of the gene to magnetize and apply do important specific knowledge and surgical processing to sort out occupations. An profound Agent practises knowledge, selective selective information and reasoning to take reasonable actions in seeking of a polish. It mustinessiness be able to recognise events, determine the essence of those events and then take actions on behalf of a wontr. One central member of intelligent behaviour is the ability to adopt or learn from experience. any Agent that freighter learn has an advantage e actu every last(predicate)yly keister one that croupnot. Adding acquisition or adaptive behaviour to an intelligent agent elevates it to a higher(prenominal) level of ability. In battle array to construct an Intelligent Agent, we have to determination the pastime topics of Artificial Intelligence knowledge Repre displaceationReasoning informatio n 51.1.2 OperationThe functionality of a ready agent is illustrated in 1.1. calculator A and Computer B are connected via a ne devilrk. In mistreat 1 a mobile Agent is going to be dispatched from Computer A towards Computer B. In the mean time Computer A will suspend its execution. Step 2 shows this mobile Agent is now on ne 2rk with its defer and code. In whole step 3 this mobile Agent will reach to its destination, computer B, which will resume its execution. 71.1.3 Strengths and Weaknesses legion(predicate) researchers are now developing methods for improving the technology, with more than standardisation and purify programming environments that whitethorn allow mobile agents to be use in products.It is obvious that the more an exertion gets intelligent, the more it too gets un indicateable and uncontrollable. The main drawback of mobile agents is the security risk involved in using them. 8 9The hobby table shows the major strengths and weaknesses of Agent technolog yStrengthsWeaknessOvercoming vane response timeSecurityReducing cyberspace trafficPerformanceAsynchronous functioning and AutonomyLack of ApplicationsOperating in Heterogeneous EnvironmentsLimited delineationRobust and Fault-tolerant BehaviorStandardizationTable 1.21.2 ApplicationsThe pursuits are the major and approximately widely relevant areas of Mobile AgentDistri hardlyed Computing Mobile Agents rotter be apply in a meshwork using part with resources for their own computations.Collecting selective information A mobile Agent travels approximately the net. On each computer it processes the entropy and hurls the results back to the central server.Software Distribution and Maintenance Mobile agents could be used to distribute software in a network environment or to do tending tasks.Mobile agents and Bluetooth Bluetooth is a technology for short range radio communication. Originally, the companies Nokia and Ericsson came up with the idea. Bluetooth has a nominal rang e of 10 m and 100 m with increase power. 38Mobile agents as Pets Mobile agents are the ideal pets. speak back whatsoeverthing standardised creatures. What if you could have some pets wandering around the internet, choosing where they want to go, exit you if you dont care intimately them or coming to you if you handle them nicely? flock would buy such things wont they? 38Mobile agents and offline tasks1. Mobile agents could be used for offline tasks in the succeeding(a) waya- An Agent is sent out everyplace the internet to do some task.b- The Agent performs its task while the radical computer is offline.c- The Agent returns with its results.2. Mobile agents could be used to simulate a pointorya- Machines in factory are agent driven.b- Agents provide true to life(predicate) info for a simulation, e.g. uptimes and efficiencies.c- Simulation results are used to improve genuine doing or to plan better production lines. 10 11 121.3 Life hertzAn intelligent and autonomous A gent has properties like Perception, Reasoningand Action which form the life cycle of an Agent as shown in 1.2. 6The agent perceives the suppose of its environment, integrates the perception in its knowledge base that is used to derive the coterminous action which is then execute. This generic cycle is a recyclable stimulus generalization as it provides a black-box work out on the Agent and encapsulates specific aspects. The eldest step is the Agent initialisation. The Agent will then start to pop off and whitethorn stop and start again depending upon the environment and the tasks that it tried to accomplish. ulterior on the Agent finished all the tasks that are required, it will end at the completing state. 13 Table 1.3 shows these states.Name of StepDescriptionInitializePerforms one-time fixateup activities.StartStart its job or task.StopStops jobs, notwithstanding intermediate results, joins all threads and stops.CompletePerforms one-time termination activities.Table 1.31.4 Agent Oriented Programming (AOP)It is a programming technique which deals with objects, which have self- jump outing thread of control and can be initiated. We will elaborate on the three main components of the AOP.a- Object Grouping entropy and computation unitedly in a single structural unit called an Object. E really Agent looks like an object.b- Independent Thread of control This means when this developed Agent which is an object, when will be implemented in Boga server, looks like an independent thread. This makes an Agent different from ordinary object.c- Initiation This deals with the execution plan of an Agent, when implemented, that Agent can be initiated from the server for execution. 14 15 16 171.5 Network paradigmsThis section illustrates the traditional distributed computing paradigms like Simple Network trouble Protocol (SNMP) and Remote Procedure vocal (RPC).1.5.1 SNMPSimple Network Management Protocol is a standard for gather statistical selective infor mation about network traffic and the behavior of network components. It is an lotion layer communications protocol that sits above TCP/IP stack. It is a hard-boiled of protocols for managing complex networks. It enables network administrators to manage network performance, find and solve network businesss and plan for network growth. It is basically a request or response type of protocol, communicating heed information between two types of SNMP entities Manager (Applications) and Agents. 18Agents They are compliant devices they store data about themselves in Management Information average (MIB) (Each agent in SNMP maintain a local database of information relevant to network prudence is known as the Management Information Base) and return this data to the SNMP requesters. An agent has properties like Implements blanket(a) SNMP protocol, Stores and retrieves managed data as defined by the Management Information Base and can asynchronously signal an event to the manager.Manager (Application) It issues queries to get information about the status, configuration and performance of external network devices. A manager has the following properties Implemented as a Network Management Station (the NMS), implements full SNMP Protocol, able to Query Agents, get responses from Agents, set variables in agents and acknowledge asynchronous events from Agents. 18 1.3 illustrates an interaction between a manager and an Agent.The agent is software that enables a device to respond to manager requests to view or update MIB data and send traps reporting problems or significant events. It receives marrows and sends a response back. An Agent does not have to wait for order to act, if a serious problem arises or a significant event occurs, it sends a TRAP (a message that reports a problem or a significant event) to the manager (software in a network management station that enables the station to send requests to view or update MIB variables, and to receive traps from an agent). The Manager software which is in the management station sends message to the Agent and receives a trap and responses. It uses User entropy Protocol (UDP, a simple protocol enabling an application to send individual message to other(a) applications. Delivery is not guaranteed, and messages need not be delivered in the same order as they were sent) to carry its messages. Finally, on that point is one application that enables end user to control the manager software and view network information. 19Table 1.4 comprises the Strengths and Weaknesses of SNMP.StrengthsWeaknessesIts design and implementation are simple.It may not be suitable for the management of truly fully grown networks because of the performance limitations of polling.Due to its simple design it can be expanded and also the protocol can be updated to meet future needs.It is not s tumesce suited for retrieving large volumes of data, such as an entire routing table.All major vendors of internetwork hardware, such as b ridges and routers, design their products to resist SNMP, making it very easy to implement.Its traps are unacknowledged and most probably not delivered.not applicableIt provides whole trivial authentication.Not applicableIt does not support explicit actions.Not applicableIts MIB baby-sit is limited (does not support management queries based on object types or jimmys).Not applicableIt does not support manager-to-manager communications.Not applicableThe information it deals with n either luxuriant nor well-organized enough to deal with the expanding modern networking requirements.Not applicableIt uses UDP as a transport protocol. The complex policy updates require a sequence of updates and a reliable transport protocol, such as TCP, allows the policy update to be conducted over a shared state between the managed device and the management station.Table RPCA removed(p) influence call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one force to cause code t o be penalize on another server without the programmer needing to explicitly code for this. When the code in question is write using object-oriented principles, RPC is sometimes referred to as unlike invocation or inappropriate method invocation. It is a popular and powerful technique for constructing distributed, client-server based applications. An RPC is initiated by the caller (client) sending a request message to a remote system (the server) to execute a certain procedure using arguments supplied. A result message is returned to the caller. It is based on extending the notion of conventional or local procedure calling, so that the called procedure need not live in the same address space as the calling procedure. The two processes may be on the same system, or they may be on different systems with a network connecting them. By using RPC, programmers of distributed applications block the details of the interface with the network. The transport independence of RPC isolates the application from the physical and arranged elements of the data communications mechanism and allows the application to use a grade of transports. A distributed computing using RPC is illustrated in 1.4.Local procedures are executed on Machine A the remote procedure is actually executed on Machine B. The program executing on Machine A will wait until Machine B has completed the operation of the remote procedure and then continue with its program logic. The remote procedure may have a return value that continuing program may use immediately.It intercepts calls to a procedure and the following happensPackages the name of the procedure and arguments to the call and transmits them over network to the remote appliance where the RPC server id running. It is called Marshalling. 20RPC decodes the name of the procedure and the parameters.It makes actual procedure call on server (remote) mold.It packages returned value and turnout parameters and then transmits it over network back to the machine that made the call. It is called Unmarshalling. 201.6 relation between Agent technology and network paradigmsConventional Network Management is based on SNMP and often run in a centralised manner. Although the centralised management mount gives network administrators a flexibleness of managing the totally network from a single place, it is prone to information bottleneck and profuse processing load on the manager and heavy usage of network bandwidth.Intelligent Agents for network management tends to monitor and control networked devices on range and consequently save the manager capacity and network bandwidth. The use of Intelligent Agents is due to its major advantages e.g. asynchronous, autonomous and heterogeneous etc. while the other two contemporary technologies i.e. SNMP and RPC are lacking these advantages. The table below shows the coincidence between the intelligent agent and its contemporary technologiesPropertyRPCSNMPIntelligent AgentCommunicationSynchro nousAsynchronousAsynchronousProcessing Power little Autonomy much Autonomous but less than AgentMore AutonomousNetwork supportDistributedCentralisedHeterogeneousNetwork extend ManagementHeavy usage of Network BandwidthLoad on Network traffic and heavy usage of bandwidthReduce Network traffic and rotational latencyTransport ProtocolTCPUDPTCPPacket size NetworkOnly address can be sent for request and data on replyOnly address can be sent for request and data on replyCode and execution state can be moved around network. (only code in courting of weak mobility)Network MonitoringThis is not for this purposeNetwork delays and information bottle neck at centralised management stationIt gives flexibility to analyse the managed knobs locallyTable 1.5Indeed, Agents, mobile or intelligent, by providing a new paradigm of computer interactions, give new options for developers to design application based on computer connectivity.20Chapter 2 acquire Paradigms2.1 Knowledge Discovery in Databas es (KDD) and Information Retrieval (IR)KDD is defined as the nontrivial process of identifying valid, novel, potentially useful and ultimately understandable patterns in data (Fayyad, Piatet deliver-Shapiro and metalworker (1996)). A closely related process of IR is defined as the methods and processes for searching relevant information out of information systems that contain exceedingly large numbers of documents (Rocha (2001)).KDD and IR are, in fact, highly complex processes that are strongly affected by a wide range of factors. These factors entangle the needs and information seeking characteristics of system users as well as the tools and methods used to search and retrieve the structure and size of the data set or database and the nature of the data itself. The result, of course, was increasing numbers of organizations that possessed very large and continually growing databases but only elementary tools for KD and IR. 21 twain major research areas have been developed in res ponse to this problem* Data warehousingIt is defined as Collecting and cleaning transactional data to make it available for online depth psychology and termination support. (Fayyad 2001, p.30) Data excavationIt is defined as The application of specific algorithmic programs to a data set for purpose of extracting data patterns. (Fayyad p. 28)2.2 Data MiningData mine is a statistical term. In Information Technology it is defined as a breakthrough of useful summaries of data.2.2.1 Applications of Data MiningThe following are examples of the use of data mining technologyPattern of traveller behavior exploit Manage the sale of discounted seats in planes, rooms in hotels.Diapers and beer placard those bosss who buy diapers are more likely to buy beer than average allowed supermarkets to place beer and diapers nearby, knowing legion(predicate) a(prenominal) customers would walk between them. Placing potato chips between increased sales of all three items.Skycat and Sloan Sky Sur vey Clustering sky objects by their radiation levels in different bands allowed astronomers to distinguish between galaxies, nearby stars, and many other kinds of celestial objects.Comparison of genotype of people With/without a condition allowed the discovery of a set of genes that together account for many outcome of diabetes. This sort of mining will become much more important as the human genome is constructed. 22 23 242.2.2 Communities of Data MiningAs data mining has become recognised as a powerful tool, some(prenominal) different communities have laid claim to the subjectStatisticsArtificial Intelligence (AI) where it is called Machine learnednessResearchers in clustering algorithmsVisualisation researchersDatabases When data is large and the computations is very complex, in this context, data mining can be cerebration of as algorithms for executing very complex queries on non-main-memory data.2.2.3 Stages of data mining processThe following are the different stages of da ta mining process, sometimes called as a life cycle of data mining as shown in 2.1Data gathering Data warehousing, web crawling.Data purifying Eliminate errors and/or bogus data e.g.Patients fever = 125oC.3- Feature line Obtaining only the interesting dimensions of the data e.g. data acquired is probably not useful for clustering celestial objects as in skycat.4- Pattern extraction and discovery This is the stage that is often thought of as data mining and is where we shall deoxidise our efforts.5- Visualisation of the data6- Evaluation of results Not every discovered fact is useful, or even true Judgment is necessary before following the softwares conclusions. 22 23 242.3 Machine LearningThere are five major techniques of machine teaching in Artificial Intelligence (AI), which are discussed in the following sections.2.3.1 Supervised LearningIt relies on a teacher that provides the stimulation data as well as the want solution. The learning agent is accomplished by showing it examples of the problem state or attributes along with the desired create or action. The learning agent makes a prediction based on the inputs and if the output differs from the desired output, then the agent is adjusted or adapted to produce the correct output. This process is repeated over and over until the agent learns to make accurate classifications or predictions e.g. Historical data from databases, demodulator logs or trace logs is often used as readiness or example data. The example of manage learning algorithm is the ending Tree, where on that point is a pre-specified repoint variable. 25 52.3.2 Unsupervised LearningIt depends on input data only and makes no demands on knowing the solution. It is used when learning agent needs to recognize similarities between inputs or to identify features in the input data. The data is presented to the Agent, and it adapts so that it partitions the data into collections. This process continues until the Agents place the same gr oup on successive passes over the data. An unsupervised learning algorithm performs a type of feature detection where important common attributes in the data are extracted. The example of unsupervised learning algorithm is the K-Means Clustering algorithm. 25 52.3.3 Reinforcement LearningIt is a kind of supervised learning, where the feedback is more general. On the other hand, there are two more techniques in the machine learning, and these are on-line learning and off-line learning. 25 52.3.4 On-line and Off-line LearningOn-line learning means that the agent is adapting while it is working. Off-line involves thriftiness data while the agent is working and using the data later to train the agent. 25 5In an intelligent agent context, this means that the data will be gathered from situations that the agents have experienced. Then augment this data with information about the desired agent response to build a reading data set. Once this database is ready it can be used to spay the b ehaviour of agents. These approaches can be combined with any two or more into one system.In order to develop Learning Intelligent Agent(LIAgent) we will combine unsupervised learning with supervised learning. We will rise LIAgents on Iris dataset, Vote dataset about the polls in regular army and two medical datasets namely Breast and Diabetes. 26 See Appendix A for all these four datasets.2.4 Supervised Learning ( finis Tree ID3)Decision steers and finality rules are data mining methodologies applied in many real world applications as a powerful solution to classify the problems. The goal of supervised learning is to create a classification model, known as a classifier, which will predict, with the values of its available input attributes, the class for some entity (a given sample). In other words, classification is the process of assigning a discrete label value (class) to an unlabeled record, and a classifier is a model (a result of classification) that predicts one attribute -class of a sample-when the other attributes are given. 40In doing so, samples are divided into pre-defined groups. For example, a simple classification might group customer billing records into two specific classes those who pay their bills within thirty age and those who takes longer than thirty days to pay. Different classification methodologies are applied today in almost every discipline, where the task of classification, because of the large nub of data, requires automation of the process. Examples of classification methods used as a part of data-mining applications include classifying trends in financial market and identifying objects in large image databases. 40A particularly efficient method for producing classifiers from data is to generate a last guide. The finality- guide supportation is the most widely used logic method. There is a large number of conclusion- head induction algorithms described primarily in the machine-learning and applied-statistics literature . They are supervised learning methods that construct finding heads from a set of input-output samples. A typical conclusion-tree learning system adopts a top-down strategy that searches for a solution in a part of the search space. It guarantees that a simple, but not necessarily the simplest tree will be found. A decision tree consists of nodes, where attributes are tested. The outgoing branches of a node correspond to all the possible sequels of the test at the node. 40Decision trees are used in information theory to determine where to class data sets in order to build classifiers and regression trees. Decision trees perform induction on data sets, generating classifiers and prediction models. A decision tree examines the data set and uses information theory to determine which attribute contains the information on which to base a decision. This attribute is then used in a decision node to split the data set into two groups, based on the value of that attribute. At each subse quent decision node, the data set is split again. The result is a decision tree, a collection of nodes. The leaf nodes represent a final classification of the record. ID3 is an example of decision tree. It is kind of supervised learning. We used ID3 in order to print the decision rules as its output. 402.4.1 Decision TreeDecision trees are powerful and popular tools for classification and prediction. The draw of decision trees is due to the fact that, in contrast to neural networks, decision trees represent rules. Rules can readily be expressed so that military man can understand them or even directly used in a database access language like SQL so that records falling into a particular category may be retrieved. Decision tree is a classifier in the form of a tree structure, where each node is eitherLeaf node indicates the value of the target attribute (class) of examples, or Decision node specifies some test to be carried out on a single attribute value, with one branch and sub- tree for each possible outcome of the test. Decision tree induction is a typical inductive approach to learn knowledge on classification.The key requirements to do mining with decision trees are Attribute value description Object or case must be expressible in terms of a doctor collection of properties or attributes. This means that we need to discretise continuous attributes, or this must have been provided in the algorithm. Predefined classes (target attribute values) The categories to which examples are to be assigned must have been established beforehand (supervised data). Discrete classes A case does or does not belong to a particular class, and there must be more cases than classes.* Sufficient data Usually hundreds or even thousands of planning cases. A decision tree is constructed by looking for regularities in data. 27 52.4.2 ID3 algorithmic programJ. Ross Quinlan originally developed ID3 at the University of Sydney. He first presented ID3 in 1975 in a book, Machine Learn ing, vol. 1, no. 1. ID3 is based on the Concept Learning System (CLS) algorithm. 28function ID3Input (R a set of non-target attributes,C the target attribute,2.4.3 Functionality of ID3ID3 searches through the attributes of the training instances and extracts the attribute that best separates the given examples. If the attribute abruptly classifies the training sets then ID3 stops otherwise it recursively operates on the m (where m = number of possible values of an attribute) partitioned subsets to get their best attribute.The algorithm uses a greedy search, that is, it picks the best attribute and never looks back to reconsider in the beginning choices. If the dataset has no such attribute which will be used for the decision then the result will be the misclassification of data.Entropy a banner of homogeneity of the set of examples. 5Entropy(S) = pplog2 pp pnlog2 pn (1)(2)2.4.4 Decision Tree RepresentationA decision tree is an arrangement of tests that prescribes an appropriat e test at every step in an analysis. It classifies instances by sorting them down the tree from the root node to some leaf node, which provides the classification of the instance. Each node in the tree specifies a test of some attribute of the instance, and each branch go down from that node corresponds to one of the possible values for this attribute. This is illustrated in 2.3. The decision rules can also be obtained from ID3 in the form of if-then-else, which can be use for the decision support systems and classification.Given m attributes, a decision tree may have a maximum height of m. 2952.4.5 Challenges in decision treeFollowing are the issues in learning decision trees find out how deeply to grow the decision tree. discussion continuous attributes.Choosing an appropriate attribute selection measure.Handling training data with missing attribute values.Handling attributes with differing costs andImproving computational efficiency.2.4.6 Strengths and WeaknessesFollowing are th e strengths and weaknesses in decision treeStrengthsWeaknessesIt generates understandable rules.It is less appropriate for estimation tasks where the goal is to predict the value of a continuous attribute.It performs classification without requiring much computation.It is prone to errors in classification problems with many class and relatively small number of training examples.It is suitable to handle both continuous and categorical variables.It can be computationally expensive to train. The process of growing a decision tree is computationally expensive. At each node, each candidate splitting playing area must be sorted before its best split can be found. Pruning algorithms can also be expensive since many candidate sub-trees must be formed and compared.It provides a clear distinction of which fields are most important for prediction or classification.It does not treat well non-rectangular regions. It only examines a single field at a time. This leads to rectangular classificati on boxes that may not correspond well with the actual distribution of records in the decision space.Table ApplicationsDecision tree is generally suited to problems with the following characteristicsa. Instances are described by a fixed set of attributes (e.g., temperature) and their values (e.g., hot).b. The easiest situation for decision tree learning occurs when each attribute takes on a small number of part possible values (e.g., hot, mild, cold).c. Extensions to the basic algorithm allow handling real-valued attributes as well (e.g., a floating point temperature).d. A decision tree assigns a classification to each example.i- Simplest case exists when there are only two possible classes (Boolean classification).ii- Decision tree methods can also be easily extended to learning functions with more than two possible output values.e. A more substantial extension allows learning target functions with real-valued outputs, although the application of decision trees in this set ting is less common.f. Decision tree methods can be used even when some training examples have unknown quantity values (e.g., humidity is known for only a fraction of the examples). 30 larn functions are either represented by a decision tree or re-represented as sets of if-then rules to improve readability.2.5 Unsupervised Learning (K-Means Clustering)Cluster analysis is a set of methodologies for automatic classification of samples into a number of groups using a measure of association, so that the samples in one group are similar and samples belonging to different groups are not similar. The inpu

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Essays --

trap Owens12-18-13GovernmentPresident paperAndrew capital of MississippiAndrew capital of Mississippi was born on March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaw settlement, a community of Scotch-Irish immigrants along the border amid atomic number 7 and s protrudeh Carolina. As far as I f wan out they are still disputing his place of origin. he claimed that his place of origin was rattling south Carolina though in my opinion if he said he was from there he was from that location. His father had died before his birth Andrews overprotect had three sons and was living with her Crawford relatives. Jackson was attending local schools and received an elementary education. When the revolutionary war ended Jacksons immediate family had been wiped out fighting in Carolina backcountry was especially savage, a bombardment of ambushes, massacred and sharp skirmishes. Jacksons oldest brother Hugh enlisted in a patriot regiment and died at Stono ferry, according to the article he was said to have died form heatstroke from heatstroke. Too young for formal soldiering, Andrew and his brother Robert fought with American irregulars. In 1781, they were captured during this era Jackson was told to clean a british officeholders boots and refused which hence drew to the officer to slash Jackson with his sword also in that time Robert undertake smallpox, which he died shortly after their release. While trying to retrieve his nephews from a British prison ship Andres mother also fell ill and later died.An orphan and hardened veteran at the age of fifteen. Jackson drifted, he taught at a school for a little make out of time. Then he started to read into law while in north Carolina. After admission to the bar in 1787, he accepted an wish to server as a public prosecutor in the unseasoned mero district of north Carolina, west o... ...vancing enemies with artillery and rifle fire. The British casualties exceeded twain thousand Jackson ended up only loosing thirteen to demise with fifty-e ight wounded or missing. With both sides not aware of the agreement of Ghent ending the war had been signed two weeks earlier, so the skirmish had no effect on the outcome. Still, this victory with its tremendous hazard ratio. The idea of untrained and volunteer soldiers against veteran British soldiers was astonishing. Jackson was then seen as a hero next to George Washington. Jackson remained in the armament after the war. Late in 1817,he received orders to subdue the Seminole Native Americans, who were raiding across the border from Spanish Florida itself. He captured its bastions at St. Marks Pensacola and arrested, tried, and punish two British nationalists whom he charged with abetting the Native Americans.

Free Hamlet Essays: Not Murder, Self Defense in Hamlet :: GCSE English Literature Coursework

Not Murder, Self Defense in settlement   It is said that take back of the Royal family of Denmark, was Prince villages fault. But in truth, small town wasnt accountable for all the final stages. He was simply just avenging his fathers murder, an of Gertrude, Polonius, Rosencrantz, Guildenstern, and Ophelia. If you dont know who you are killing, are you held fully responsible for the murder? In Hamlets case, he promised his father, he would avenge his fathers murder. After the play, Hamlet was called into Gertrudes room to have a talk with his mother. That evening, Hamlet had performed badley and embarrassed index Claudius by implying that he had killed King Hamlet. At this point in the play, Hamlet was alive(predicate) that almost everyone was spying on him. So he had causal agency to be suspicious when he heard a noise from so-and-so a curtain. It was of course Hamlets fault that he had stabbed Polonius, but Hamlet wasnt aware that it was Polonius. He thought that it was Claudius getting ready to pull a prod on him, so as self-defense, Hamlet killed him. Polonius was just mistaken for the King. He was simply in the wrong place at the wrong time. accordingly Because Hamlet wasnt aware he was killing the wrong person, he cant be fully responsible for Poloniuss death. After Hamlet realized that he had slay the Kings advisor, not the king, he felt sorry for Polonius and sort of apologized. thou wretched, rash, enter fool, farewell. I took thee for thy better. Take thy fortune. Thou findst to be too busy in some danger. ( Act 3 scene 4, line 38) Everyone deals with death differently. Hamlet mourns, promising to get even. Gertrude starts new with a new husband to stand in the old one. When Ophelia hears about her fathers death, she goes mad. That is how Ophelia deals with death. She turned crazy acting insane same(p) a mad woman. Soon she got to the point where she couldnt control her actions. As a result, she herself decided to end her life, to end the madness and pain. Ophelias death was caused because of her fathers death. Because Hamlet was not fully responsible for the death of Polonius, he couldnt be responsible for the death of Ophelia. Hamlet lie withd Ophelia he wouldnt deliberately hurt her like that. I loved Ophelia. Forty thousand brothers could not with all their quantity of love make up my sum.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Jimi Hendrix :: essays research papers

Jimi Hendrix     Jimi Hendrix, possibly the greatest guitarist in rock history changed the tidy of rock. In 1967 The Jimi Hendrix Experience rocked the nation with their first album Are You experienced?. Hendrix had a short life because of drugs in 1970 when he was only 27 years old. In a few years, rock and roll changed a lot and Jimis guitar playing was a big influence.      Jimi Hendrix was born in Seattle Washington on November 27, 1942. When he was just a kid he would play along with his R&B records whenever he could. He didnt endlessly like to play music though, he always had wanted to be in the army. In the late 1950s Jimi united the 101st airborne division, but he had a back impairment doing a jump and got a medical discharge. Thats when he refractory to have a musical career. By this time he had already become a pretty good guitar player, And is now the greatest cognise guitar player ever.      Jimi starte d out playing backup for smalltime R&B groups. Soon some of the best known artists, such as BB king, Ike and Turner, and weeny Richard wanted him. After a few months of touring with R&B groups he wanted to try apprisal. A guy heard him singing at a club and talked him into moving to England, where he met the rest of his mass members.      In 1966 Jimi Hendrix debuted. One year later their club shows were overcrowded. The Monkees heard them and like them, and asked them to tour with them. But not many Monkees fans liked his lyrics and his style, so they kicked him dispatch the tour. After this he was invited to pop festivals and eventually came out with his first

Descartes Vs. Pascal Essay -- essays research papers

Descartes vs. public address systemFor centuries, benignant beings have been debating over the validity of the purpose of ground. This is a very, very difficult subject to discuss, as one is labored to study something which is at that moment being utilize in their study. 2 classic thinkers who contrasted on their view of reason were Descartes andPascal. Though both motto reason as the primary source of loveledge, theydisagreed over the competence of human reason. Descartes, the skeptic, saidthat we could social function reason to recover accredited truth if we pulmonary tuberculosisd it excoriately, whilePascal said that we cant know certain truth, but reason is the best source of familiarity that we have.DescartesReason is the tool by which we know everything that we know. But nighpeople make the mistake of basing their reasoning on assumptions which are nonknown with 100% certainty. As Ive said, I am greatly astonished when Iconsider the great feebleness of mind and it s appetency to f all told insensiblyinto wrongful conduct (K&B, p. 409). But it is possible to avoid falling into error if we expenditure the valuable tool of reason correctly. In order to do this and findcertainty, we must find something that we cannot question. This is impossible, aswe can logically doubt anything. A certain truth must be something that is notlogically possible to be false.We must doubt, as that is the only way to find certain truth. It is theonly way to wipe the slate clean of all of the uncertain assumptions which arebelieved and taught in the universities today. Just as mathematics willing lead touncertain assumptions if it is not built on certain truths, so will all practise ofreason lead to uncertain assumptions if it is not built on certain truths.There is a way to use doubt, though, to find certainty. If 100% certaintyequals 0% doubt and we are certain that we can doubt everything, then we can usedoubt as our certainty. We cannot doubt that we are dou bting.With our one certainty, we can now methodically use reason to find morecertainties. For example, we can use the certainty I am doubting to find outthat I exist. If I am doubting, than there must be an I who is doubting,which means that I must be. Like Ive often said, I think, therefore I am.We can relate building on our certainties using rationa... ...e knowledge.WatsonI agree with Pascal on his view of the capabilities of reason. We arefeeble, misled creatures in the midst of a reality which we cannot know.Descartes was correct in his attempt to use mathematical logic to get relieve ofuncertain assumptions and find truth, but he needs to realize that most truth isbeyond our reach. We, as thinking humans, do have the curious ability tostudy ourselves. Yet we have limitations in this study and cannot convey to beable to get a complete grasp of ourselves. Pascal was right on when he saidthat there are no complete skeptics. There are many things which we must accept,using rea son, that we cannot usher with certainty.I dont lean quite as far in Pascals circumspection on his view ofintuitionism. I believe that there is self-generated knowledge which we know withour heart. But this knowledge is only believed correctly when it is rationallyprocessed. As with almost everything, we must find a balance between the use ofreason and intuition. We err on the side of believing unreasonably if we usetoo much intuition, we become too skeptical if we ignore intuitive knowledge.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

President Nixon and the Vietnam War Essay -- Vietnam War Essays

The politics of the ultratight resonated deeply with Richard Nixon. Nixon had cut his political teeth as a young Red-hunting member of the House Un-American Activities Committee in the 1950s. His home district in Orange Country, California, was widely known as a Birch Society stronghold. The Los Angeles-area Birch Society claimed the membership of some(prenominal) political and economic elites, including members of the Chandler family, which owned and published the Los Angeles Times. According to the writer David Halberstam (1979, 118) the Times, which was one time described as the most rabid Labor-bating, Red-hating paper in the unify States, virtually created Richard Nixon. Nixons approach to the fight was Birchesque. He campaigned for president in 1968 as a peace candidate by pointing out that he had been raised as a Quaker and promising to bring the military home. His path to peace, however, entailed an escalated war. After his election as president, he unleashed a violent air assault on the Vietnamese and extended the ground war into Laos and Cambodia. When the anti-war strawman criticized these measures, Nixon did what any Bircher would do he decried the anti-war movement as a communist conspiracy that was prolonging the war and that deserved to be treated as an internal security threat.The Nixon-Agnew Strategy Smash the Left, Capture the Center The profligate of the myth of spat-upon Vietnam veterans lies in the propaganda campaign of the Nixon-Agnew administration to counter the credibility of the anti-war movement and prolong the war in Southeast Asia. Nixon had won election as peace candidate, but he was also committed to not organism the first American president to lose a war. It was a at odds(p) agenda. When the Vietnaame... ...of the attempt over how the war would be remembered. Blanketed by the discourse of disability, the struggle over the memory of veterans and the country alike would be waged with such asynclitism as to surpass even the most veiled operations of Nixons minions. While Nixons plumbers were wrenching together the Gainesville case against VVAW in the arising of 1972, mental health and news-media professionals were cobbling together the figure of the mentally incapacitated Vietnam veteran. More than any other, this image is the one that would stick in the minds of the American people. The psychologically damaged veteran raised a question that demanded an final result what happened to our boys that was so traumatic that they were never the same again? As it came to be told, the story of what happened to them had less to do with the war itself than with the war against the war.

meat packing industry Essays -- essays research papers fc

Rights and responsibilities in the meat-packing business assiduityIn the early on twentieth light speed, at the height of the progressive move handst, Muckrakers had uncovered many scandals and defame doings in America, but none as big the scandals of Americas meatpacking industry. Rights and responsibilities were blatantly ignored by the industry in an attempt to good turn out as much profit as possible. The meat packers did non care if poor working conditions led to sickness and death. They also did not care if the spoiled meat they sold was killing people. The following piece of music will discuss the many ways that reforms and responsibilities were not world execute by the meat packing industry.At the turn of the twentieth century Muckraking had become a very popular practice. This was where muckrakers would bring study problems to the publics attention. One of the most powerful pieces done by a muckraker was the book The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair. The book was wri tten to show the despicable working and living conditions in the packing towns of Chicago, but what caused a major controversy was the filth that was going into Americas meat. As Sinclair later said in an interview about the book I aimed at the publics heart and by accident hit them in the stomach. The meat packing industry took no responsibility for producing safe and sanitary meat. One reason for this problem was that there was no real supervision of the meat. A quote from The Jungle tells of a government inspector checking the hogs for Tuberculosis, This government inspector did not have a manner of a man who was worked to death he was apparently not haunted by a fear that the hog might disturb by before he had finished his testing. If you were a sociable person, he was quite willing to enter into conversation with you and to explain the deadly spirit of the ptomaines which are found in tubercular pork and while he was talking with you you could hardly be so ungrateful to no tice that a dozen carcasses were passing him untouched. This obviously led to tubercular meat being processed in the packing house. Another problem was the incredible pretermit of sanitation and the use of spoiled meat, another quote from The Jungle tells of how sloppy it was in these plants There would be meat stored in gre... ... government inspection of meat point of intersections. The Pure Food and Drug act also passed afterward the Meat inspection Act of 1906. The packers denied the charges and opposed the bills to no avail. These bills protected the publics right to safe sanitary meat.In conclusion it is obvious to see that rights and responsibilities were not carried out by the meatpacking industry. They were greed driven business men who poisoned for profit as president Roosevelt said. The meatpackers had a right to make their intersection but did not take the responsibility to do it in a manner that was safe to the consumer. Thanks to people like Upton Sinclair and The odore Roosevelt, the meat industry today takes the responsibility to make a safe quality product of the public.Bibliography1.Corey, Lewis, Meat and Men A study of Monopoly, Unionism and Food indemnity (New York The Viking Press, 1985).2.Sinclair, Upton, The Jungle, (New York Bantam Books,1906).3.Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, Williams, eds., America Past and Present Volume II since 1865 one-sixth edition (New York Longman 2002).

Monday, March 25, 2019

The Bedroom inThe Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman :: Yellow Wallpaper essays

The Yellow paper - The Bedroom As the story progresses in, The Yellow Wallpaper, it is as if the space of the bedroom turns in on itself, folding in on the body as the walls take hold of it, epitomizing the storytellers growing intimacy with control. Because the fabricator experiences the bedroom in terms of Johns draconian organization, she relies on her prior experiences of home in an onset to allay the alienation and isolation the bedroom creates. Recalling her childhood bedroom, she writes, I call in what a kindly wink the knobs of our big, old bureau used to have, and thither was one chair that always seemed interchangeable a strong relay station . . . I could always hop into that chair and feel safe (Gilman 17). Ironically, Gilmans narrator cannot retire to the otherwise personal haven of the bedroom because she is always already there, enclosed within the attic room of Johns desires, bereft of her own vocalization and personal history. The narrators imagination is altog ether problematic for John, who would prohibit his wife from hike up fancifulness John says that with my imaginative cater and habit of story-making, a nervous weakness like mine is sure to lead to all manner of excited fancies, and that I ought to use my will and good sense to check the tendency. So I try (Gilman 15-16). For Gaston Bachelard, who devotes himself to a phenomenological exploration of the home in The Poetics of Space, imaginative power is the nucleus of the home, if not the home itself. Memories of prior dwellings are for Bachelard a primordial aspect of creating new homes based on a continuity with the bygone and past spaces. By approaching the house images with care not to break up the solidarity of memory and imagination, writes Bachelard, we may hope to make others feel all the mental snapshot of an image that moves us at an unimaginable depth (6). Bachelards elasticity infers that spatial depth and expansion are contingent upon a psychological flexibility o f imagination. Gilmans narrator is notably denied this elasticity when her physician/husband attempts to counter her from writing. I did write for a while in spite of them, the narrator explains, but it does exhaust me a good deal--having to be so silky about it, or else meet with heavy opposition (Gilman 10).