Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"There's too much wrangling and maneuvering going on Ã¢â¬â I just hate this office politickingÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Joe, well he's a smart political mover Ã¢â¬â knows exactly how to get what he wants and how to get on. Ã¢â¬ Whether you hate it, admire it, practice it or avoid it, office politics is a fact of life in any organization. And, like it or not, it's something that you need to understand and master to be sure of your own success. Ã¢â¬Å"Office politicsÃ¢â¬ are the strategies that people play to gain advantage, personally or for a cause they support. The term often has a negative connotation, in that it refers to strategies people use to seek advantage at the expense of others or the greater good. In this context, it often adversely affects the working environment and relationships within in. Good Ã¢â¬Å"office politicsÃ¢â¬ , on the other hand, help you fairly promote yourself and your cause, and is more often called networking and stakeholder management. Perhaps due to the negative connotation, many people see office politics as something very much to be avoided. But the truth is, to ensure your own success and that of your projects, you must navigate the minefield of Office Politics. If you deny the Ã¢â¬Ëbad politics' that may be going on around you, and avoid dealing with them, you may needlessly suffer whilst others take unfair advantage. And if you avoid practicing Ã¢â¬Ëgood politics', you miss the opportunities to properly further your own interests, and those of your team and your cause.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Introduction Atomic Absorption relies on the principle that each atom absorbs light of a particular wavelength, and hence at that wavelength the quantity of that absorption is proportional to the elements concentration. The first technique used in this analysis was Electrothermal Atomisation, known as Graphite Furnace-AAS. The components of a Graphite Furnace AAS are similar to that of Flame AAS, they more or less use the same components, with the exception of the component used to heat the sample. For a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer the schematic is: Hollow Cathode Lamp Ã¢â â Graphite Tube Ã¢â â Monochromator Ã¢â â Detector The Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) is a selective/specific light source made from the element of interest. The HCL contains an inert gas which is usually Argon or Neon. Ionization of the inert gas takes place, which causes acceleration of the gas into the Cathode. This causes the metal atoms (Al) of the cathode to sputter into the gas phase. The collision of sputtered atoms with the Argon atoms or electrons, excite the metal to higher energy levels. It is the process of decay that occurs which causes excited electrons to emit light in their return down to lower energy levels which is shone through the sample in the Graphite tube. Ar + e- Ã¢â â Ar+ = 2e- M(s) + Ar+ Ã¢â â M(g) + Ar M(g) + Ar+ Ã¢â â M*(g) + Ar M*(g) Ã¢â â M(g) + hv (light) The monochromator isolates the absorption line obtained from the sample, giving an accurate depiction to the detector. While the detector measures the intensity of the light and produces an electrical signal equivalent to the intensity. The sample is injected directly into the graphite tube, which is then heated. The tube provides thermal energy enough to break bonds within the sample and produce free atoms of the analyte. The sample undergoes three stages of heating, which are all imperative to the analysis of the sample: Step 1: drying of sample (which is the removal of water and the solvent) happens at approximately 125 degrees celsius. Step 2: Ã¢â¬ËashingÃ¢â¬â¢ of organic matter (removal of organic and inorganic material, essentially any matrix) happens at approximately1300 degrees celsius. Step 3: Vaporization of analyte atoms (free analyte atoms in light path) Ã¢â¬â happens at approximately 2400 degrees celsius Step 2 is important for preventing Spectral Interference in the analysis. Due to the fact, there is no flame used in this particular technique there is no combustion products, hence there improved sensitivity of between 10 and 10^3. Method 1. From stock standard of Aluminium provided, prepare concentrations of 10ppb, 20ppb and 50ppb. 2. Add 2ml of 10% HNO3 to each standard and make up to volume in polycarbonate flasks using Ultra High Purity water (UHP water). 3. Prepare a blank: 2ml of 10% HNO3 diluted with UHP water. 4. Take 50ml samples of tap water from: a laboratory sink, a tap in C block, a sink from alternative lab. 5. Add 1ml of 10% HNO3 to each sample as a preservative. 6. Ensure all solutions are mixed well before loading into carousel. 7. Load carousel in order of: blank, then set of standards filling all inner positions. 8. Load samples into outer carousel using small cups. 9. Run analysis. Optimising the GF-AAS is important to ensure maximum efficiency of detection. This is done via running the standards over a range of pre-treatment and atomisation temperatures to determine the conditions for maximum response. Running the blank is important in establishing the base-line reading Ã¢â¬â this acts as a correction factor, as you can determine how much absorption you find in your samples as a result of the solvent.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
DIRECT SPEECH VS. REPORTED SPEECH There are two ways to report what someone says or thinks; 1. Direct speech shows a personÃ¢â¬â¢s exact words. Quotation marks (Ã¢â¬Å". . . Ã¢â¬ ) are a sign that the words are the same words that a person used. For example: Madison: What do you want to eat for lunch? Jason: I think I will have hamburger. Direct speech: Maria asked, Ã¢â¬Å"What do you want to eat for lunch? Ã¢â¬ Jason replied, Ã¢â¬Å"I think I will have hamburger. Ã¢â¬ 2. Reported speech (Indirect speech) puts the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s words or ideas into a sentence without quotation marks. Noun clauses are usually used.For example: Madison: What do you want to eat for lunch? Jason: I think I will have hamburger. Reported speech: Madison asked Jason What he wanted for lunch. Jason said that he was thinking of having hamburger for lunch. COMPASRISON BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH 1. 0 VERB TENSE IN REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| simple present past present pe rfect will can | simple past past perfectpast perfect wouldcould| Quotation Reported speech Ã¢â¬Å"I am hungry. Ã¢â¬ She stated that she was hungry. Ã¢â¬Å"The exam will be next week. Ã¢â¬ Dr. Jones said the exam will be next week 2. QUESTIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH a. Word order: The word order in a reported question is the same as in a statement. The subject comes before the verb. b. Punctuation: If the sentence is a statement, it end with a period (. ) even if it contains a reported question. c. To change a yes/no question to a noun clause in reported speech, introduce the noun clause with if or whether. Whether or not may also be used. d. To change an information question to a noun clause in reported speech, begin the noun clause with the question word,DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * Question: Are you ready? Statement: I am ready. * Ã¢â¬Å"Did you turn off the coffee pot? Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"Is supper ready? Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"Where do they live? Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"When did you cal l? Ã¢â¬ | * She wanted to know if I was ready. * I asked Amy if she had turned off the coffee. * Eli wanted to know whether supper was ready. * Abdul wanted to know where they live. * Sharon asked me when I had called. | 3. 0 PRONOUNS Since the person who is reporting what someone said is usually different from the person who made the original statement, pronouns in reported speech often change.DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * Ã¢â¬Å"I am hungry. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"Where will you be? Ã¢â¬ | * George said he was hungry. * Bill wanted to know where I would be. | 4. 0 PLACE AND TIME Changes in place and time words depend on changes in the situation between direct and reported speech. DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like this book. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see you tomorrow. Ã¢â¬ (spoken on Thursday) | * Jaime said he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like that book. * Michiko said she would see me today. (spoken on Friday) Michiko said she would see me yesterday. (spoken on Saturday)| 5. 0 INFINITIVES . Infinitives (to + the simple form of the verb) may sometimes be used instead of noun clauses. b. Commands can be reported two ways: 1. a noun clause with a modal (usually should) 2. an infinitive c. Requests for action or permission can be reported two ways: 1. a noun clause with if 2. an infinitive DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * Ã¢â¬Å"Call me when you get home. Ã¢â¬ * Action: Ã¢â¬Å"Will you carry the box for me? Ã¢â¬ * Permission: Ã¢â¬Å"Can I make an appointment? Ã¢â¬ | * -She said that we should call her when we get home. -She said to call her when we get home. -She asked me if I would carry the box for her. * -She asked me to carry the box for her. * -The student asked if he could make an appointment. -The student asked to make an appointment. | 6. 0 RECOMMEND AND SUGGEST The subjunctive, or base, form of the verb (no tense, without to) is used in reported speech when the main verb is recommend or suggest. DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED S PEECH| * Ã¢â¬Å"You should arrive early. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t wait to apply. Ã¢â¬ | * Jason recommended that we arrive early. * Anna recommended that I not wait to apply. |
Friday, September 27, 2019
Literature Review of relationship marketing - Essay Example The emphasis on relationships as opposed to transaction based exchanges is very likely to redefine the domain of marketing (J.N. Sheth, 1988). Indeed, the emergence of a relationship marketing school of thought is imminent given the growing interest of marketing scholars in the relational paradigm. Relationship marketing is in the Advertising, Marketing, & Sales subject. Promotional and selling activities aimed at developing and managing trusting and long-term relationships with larger customers is defined as Relationship Marketing. Customer profile, buying patterns, and history of contacts is maintained in a sales database, and a service representative who is also called an account executive is assigned to one or more major customers to fulfil their needs and maintain the relationship (Business Dictionary, 2007). Relationship marketing is a form of marketing that evolved from direct response marketing; it places emphasis on building longer-term relationships with customers rather than on individual transactions. Relationship marketing involves an understanding of customers' needs and wants through their lifecycle and providing a range of products or services accordingly. Often, though, it is used interchangeably with terms such as customer loyalty, database marketing, predictive modelling, data warehousing, one-to-one marketing, relationship selling, retention, mass customization, customer intimacy or customer bonding. The term relationship marketing was popularised in the 1980s when the focus of marketers started to switch from customer acquisition to customer retention. The concept was strongly influenced by reengineering theory, which was gaining currency at the same time: organisations undergoing reengineering became structured according to complete tasks and processes rather than functions, i.e. cross-functional teams should be responsible for a whole process, from beginning to end, rather than having the work go from one separate functional department to another. Traditional marketing is said to use the functional department approach, which is now deemed too limited to provide a usable framework for assessing and developing customer relationships. In today's sophisticated consumer environment, an alternative model where the focus is on customers and relationships rather than markets and products is now required. As with each new shift in the focus of marketing, there are advocates and critics of the relationship focus in marketing. However, in the same way as (Kotler, A Generic Concept of Marketing, 1972) observed about other shifts in marketing, it is believed that the emergence of a relationship focus will provide a "refreshed and expanded self concept" to marketing. This optimism stems from at least four observations: (i) relationship marketing has caught the fancy of scholars in many parts of the world, including North America, Europe, Australia and Asia, as is evident from the participation in some of the recent conferences held on this subject (Parvatiyar, 1994); (ii) its scope is wide enough to cover the entire spectrum of marketing's sub disciplines, including channels,
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Employee Engagement (MA Human Resource Management) - Coursework Example 10 6. Conclusion 12 References 1. Introduction The involvement of the specific organization in a New Global HR programme should be checked by referring primarily to the relevant evidence, meaning the literature related to this issue but also the findings of the empirical research. At the next level, the potentials of the firm to perform well in such project would be evaluated by reviewing the results of similar business projects, i.e. other projects of similar characteristics in which the firm participated, directly or indirectly. The experience of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s managers in HR management plans will be also taken into consideration. It should be noted that the development of secure assumptions regarding the potential performance of the firm in such project would be rather impossible. Only estimations can be made regarding the potentials of the firm for further growth through the specific project. On the other hand, the fact that the firm has successfully entered the global market, through its subsidiaries in India and Taiwan cannot be ignored. The needs of the firm for stabilization in the international marketplace have to be taken into account for deciding whether the engagement in such plan could result to benefits or to losses for the organization. The various implications of the particular plan will be presented and evaluated using the relevant literature. Assumptions are made based on the evidence gathered on the issues under discussion. 2. Employee engagement, role in the facilitation of business purposes In order to understand the role of employee engagement within the organization, especially regarding the facilitation of the business purposes, it would be necessary to refer primarily to the context of employee engagement, i.e. its elements and its mission. The potential forms of employee engagement are presented below; based on the form of employee engagement chosen, a relevant assumption can be produced regarding the role of employee engagement in the facilitation of business purposes. Furthermore, this view will be used in order to decide whether the suggested business plan is expected to perform well Ã¢â¬â based on its alignment with the needs of the organization but also of the employees, as reflected in their engagement to the organization. In accordance with the literature published on the specific subject, employee engagement is a rather complex concept, which is quite important for the success of business projects. However, in many cases, it is ignored being considered as having just a secondary role in daily business operations. In accordance with Federman (2009) there are four levels of employee engagement: a) at the first level, no attention is given to employee engagement; the needs of the employee are ignored. A high percentage of modern organizations belong to the specific category, about 27%, as Federman (2009, p.2) notes, b) at the second level, employee engagement is considered as just an event. In the cont ext of this thought, the following assumption is developed regarding the employee engagement: employee engagement can be included in the context of an organizational restructuring, as the result of an important change in the organization, for example Ã¢â¬Ëthe change of its presidentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Federman 2009, p.2); however it could not be fully implemented. This means
Relegation System in Major League Soccer - Term Paper Example Major League Soccer or what is popularly known as MLS is the official soccer league of United States of America. The tournament is endorsed by United States Soccer Federation and Don Garber is its present commissioner. Major League Soccer (MLS) was started in the year of 1993; however, the first session of competition was staged in the year 1996 with just10 teams. The teams were owned by the franchisees and are operated and functioned by its stakeholders. The present format of MLS has 19 teams who play with each other on a home-away basis. Among the 19 teams, 16 are from the US and the other 3 teams are from Canada. Some of the noticeable teams of the tournament include LA Galaxy, Montreal Impact, Toronto FC Dallas and Real Salt Lake among many others. The first season of the tournament witnessed record attendance however it felt below the expected level from the next season onwards. People started to lose interest in soccer as other sports such as baseball, basketball took the elite positions. The condition revived when players such as David Beckham, Cuauhtemoc Blanco joined the league as players of respective teams. The primary rationale behind the commencement of MLS was to strengthen the national football team of US. The quality of the league was in doubt when the USA was eliminated from the opening stages in the 1998 soccer world cup. Apart from that, 1994 Soccer world cup that was staged in the US was also another reason. The professional league helped the country to bid for the tournament.Ã ... The first season of the tournament witnessed record attendance however it felt below the expected level from the next season onwards. People started to lose interest on soccer as other sports such as baseball, basketball took the elite positions. The condition revived when players such as David Beckham, Cuauhtemoc Blanco joined the league as players of respective teams (Dure, 2010, p.xvi). The primary rational behind the commencement of MLS was to strengthen the national football team of US. Nonetheless the quality of the league was on doubt, when USA was eliminated from the opening stages in the 1998 soccer world cup. Apart from that, 1994 Soccer world cup that was staged in US was also another reason. The professional league helped the country to bid for the tournament. Formulation of Mission and Vision statements Mission and vision statements are important for running a venture. Also in case of MLS mission and vision statements, holds an important position. MLS was started in the year 1993 for the purpose of establishing a particular objective. Moreover in order to achieve the objective one needs to have clear vision of the future. While on the other hand a mission statement is being used to describe the purposes or aims of the new association. Hence it can be justified that mission and vision statement plays an indispensable role. The newly developed mission and vision statement for MLS are formulated below. Mission Statement To offer the country with new talents in football and also to encourage upcoming talents in the field of soccer. To enthuse the world of sports lovers by showcasing highest quality of entertainment. Vision Statement Ã¢â¬ËWe
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
My passion for wildlife biology - Essay Example I sat enthralled as a spider spun its web underneath our porch. I gaped in amazement when I first witnessed a foal being born in our barn. I sat for many hours pondering how our chickens managed to lay eggs and break them open. Where did those chicks come from? I once wondered aloud. During certain seasons, wolves would become the bane to the lives of livestock. I spent a number of my nights as a teenager keeping that wild creature away from our farm. I hated the sound of gunshots ringing through the night air. It did not seem right to kill a creature without knowing why it was attacking other animals. My summers were spent building birdbaths for the migratory birds passing by our farm. We often had a lot of stray animals dropping by our farm in need of sustenance. When I realized that the wolves and other wild animals were just hungry, I researched on the kinds of plant food that they might be interested in eating. I encouraged my father to then plant these very plants on our farm in order to feel the wild life and save our livestock from further harm. It was a plan that actually worked. It brought down the rate of attacks by wild life on our farm animals. It was that research and passion to preserve wild life that led me down the path of further Wild Life Biology studies. I hope that I will be given a chance to learn more about my passion at the hands of the great educators of the Sterling College Biology Department. I believe that I will make a fantastic addition to your roster of students, I just need to be given a chance to prove myself to the admissions and academic members of the
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Women are generally more suited than men to manage modern corporations - Essay Example Additionally, women headed at least 12 companies classified as Fortune 500 and 25 companies classified as Fortune 1000 by the year 2009. This accounts for an increase of approximately 4% in the number of women heading these classes of companies from the statistics of 1998, when the figure stood at 11.2%. While this growth rate seems sluggish at face value, it implicitly reveals the gradual acceptance of women into the realms of top management of large corporations in America. While this is noteworthy, the question of whether the workforce is really ready to be managed by women begs. If so, are women fit for the job? This paper proposes that women are better managers than men, hence their suitability to head modern corporations in America and the world over. Keywords: Top management, Women, Corporations, Workforce, Managers Introduction The boardrooms of many of the countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ multi-faceted corporations dealing with information technology, publishing, and advertising among othe r industries have long been dominated majorly by males (Gettings, Johnson, Brunner & Frantz, n.d.). However, in the contemporary American society, there has been a paradigm shift that has seen the absorption of women into the management of large corporations cutting across different industries. ... There are qualities of women that influence their management styles. For instance, women are viewed as being more encouraging and people-oriented (Billing & Alvesson, 1993). Due to the nature of women being more nurturing than men, it follows that when they are in positions of management, they relate better to their colleagues and subordinates. Women will often react by urging on employees as opposed to retribution, and this will often encourage employees to perform better, as well as being more motivated. By being more people-oriented, women managers are more in touch with the needs and personal well-being of their subordinates, rather than just their performance at work. They capitalize on their relations with other people at the work place and therefore often lead by setting examples, understand, and encourage employees to be more efficient by being more in touch with their needs. Women managers in this respect are also better listeners and build better relationships with people a round them in the workforce. They are more concerned with the human aspects of different situations in the work environment (Rutherford, 2011). According to News Agencies, women are also better at decision making than men (2013). In many corporations that are headed by women, the decision making process has been found to be more efficient and organized. In situations where there is a conflict involved that needs to be resolved, women managers are found to make decisions that are more reasonable and fairer than their male counterparts. In the process of making decisions, women managers are more likely than men managers to take into account the implications of the decisions that they make on other parties. Such parties include those in both direct
Monday, September 23, 2019
What I Have Learned About Women, Work And Society - Essay Example Professional or managerial work affects women not in the same way as work on assembly line or in service sector. Women's socio-economic status and access to social support inside and outside of the family can also mediate role performance. Another important dimension of women's roles has to do with choice and necessity. "Public" roles, such as worker or social activist, are usually voluntary, and hence conducive to the sense of mastery and self-actualization (Boris and Chaudhuri 2001). Conversely, caretaking roles are often experienced as "imposed," and lead to perceived loss of control and poorer mental health. Therefore, universal models of role interaction should be supplemented by the more contextualized studies in specific groups of women of different age, ethnicity and social standing. Professional or managerial work affects women not in the same way as work on assembly line or in service sector. Women's socio-economic status and access to social support inside and outside of the family can also mediate role performance. Another important dimension of women's roles has to do with choice and necessity. "Public" roles, such as worker or social activist, are usually voluntary, and hence conducive to the sense of mastery and self-actualization. Conversely, caretaking roles are often experienced as "imposed," and lead to perceived loss of control and poorer mental health. Therefore, universal models of role interaction should be supplemented by the more contextualized studies in specific groups of women of different age, ethnicity and social standing. Professional or managerial work affects women not in the same way as work on assembly line or in service sector. Women's socio-economic status and access to social support inside and outside of the family can also mediate role performance. Another important dimension of women's roles has to do with choice and necessity. "Public" roles, such as worker or social activist, are usually voluntary, and hence conducive to the sense of mastery and self-actualization. Conversely, caretaking roles are often experienced as "imposed," and lead to perceived loss of control and poorer mental health. Therefore, universal models of role interaction should be supplemented by the more contextualized studies in specific groups of women of different age, ethnicity and social standing. The bulk of earlier social research on women's roles was typically focused on the roles of younger women, i.e. those of wife, mother of young children, and employee; few studies addressed the issue of role overload in older working women. Using concepts of "caregiver stress" or "caregiver burden," the impact of elder care on the caregiver, as well as the cumulative effect of multiple roles, have been increasingly addressed. (Barbara Hanawalt 1986) The need in family-based care of the elderly is rapidly expanding in response to growing life expectancy and population ageing. Since women live, on the average, 5-7 years longer than men, they form the majority among both providers and recipients of care. The need for support and assistance progressively ascends after age 65, and by age 85 over half of the elderly cannot function without help. Despite growing social and geographic mobility in modern families, the ties between the elders and their adult children are stronger than was believed in past decades. Long-Term Care Survey in the U.S. has shown that 80% of elder care is provided by family members, and 72% of the caregivers are women, usually daughters or daughters-in-law. (Boris And Janssens 2000) Another demographic factor increasing the likelihood of having elderly parents while still young is the postponement of childbearing in most western countries. Many middle-class women, who invest time and effort in education and career, marry and bear children in their 30s and even early 40s. By the time these children start families of their own, their parents may well be into their late 60s. The small number of siblings in modern nuclear families also results in excessive caregiver burden falling on a single child, usually a daughter. About two million American women are simultaneously engaged in care of their teenage or younger children and ageing parents. An adult woman can expect to spend 17 years of her life caring for children and 18 years
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Utiltarianism vs Kant Essay Kant had a different ethical system which was based on reason. According to Kant reason was the fundamental authority in determining morality. All humans possess the ability to reason, and out of this ability comes two basic commands: the hypothetical imperative and the categorical imperative. In focusing on the categorical imperative, in this essay I will reveal the underlying relationship between reason and duty. The categorical imperative suggests that a course of action must be followed because of its rightness and necessity. The course of action taken can also be reasoned by its ability to be seen as a universal law. Universal laws have been deemed as unconditional commands that are binding to everyone at all times. Kant believed that individuals have a freedom to consciously obey the laws of the universe as they are revealed in accordance to our ability to reason. Kant goes a step further to suggest that our actions should be driven by a sense of duty that is dictated by reason. What does it mean to act out of duty? Kant says that this means that we should act out of respect for the moral law. The moral law can be directly related to the categorical imperative. How can we accomplish the task of acting out of duty? We must first recognize and have an understanding of what the moral law is, then a sense of duty should become the motive for our actions. Finally our actions should be compelled by doing what is morally right; which is considered doing what we can will to be a universal law to be followed by all. Moral laws can also be defined as universal laws. Kants theory can be defended on several premises. First, all individuals do have a duty to what is right, whether they act accordingly or not. All citizens are held to a duty to uphold the laws, if there was no duty then laws would not exist. Morality coincides with being loyal to the laws, being a disciplined person, and living an orderly life. These essentials are all present in Kants perception of duty. Another key strength to the theory is the concentration on motivation. The motive for which an individual acts has more validity then the unknown consequences that lie ahead. According to Kant we are motivated by our duty, and we know that motivation comes from an internal source. Motive provides substance to personal decisions and choices that are made. In order to feel a duty to react or act in a certain manner, an individual uses internal reasoning when making decisions. As moral agents who have the ability to reason Kants theory is right on the target. We will consciously make decisions by the things or factors that we are motivated by. I feel that it is safe to say that most people actions are guided by motives whether they are morally correct or not. Utilitarians on the other hand would disagree with Kant on several points. Utilitarians would argue that actions should be decided by the consequences they would produce. Remember that utilitarians believe in the good for the greatest number. In an argument against Kants theory, they would say that the categorical imperative can not be used as a tool to measure morality. Doing what one will ultimately will as a universal law can not guarantee the a positive for the majority. In their argument against Kantian ethical theories they would probably state that Kant does not leave room for ill will to be addressed. A person who has bad or ill intentions, would act in a manner in which they would want others to follow. This position would leave room for immorality to be introduced, and it would ultimately not serve the general purpose of supporting the rule of sustaining good for the greater number of individuals. Secondly, utilitarians would argue that down playing the importance of consequences would create an even greater injustice to society. Peoples actions should be gauged by the consequences they produce. Consequences are the end result to the means. Kant and his beliefs do not factor in the turmoil that will result from negative decisions that are made. The gauge for measuring happiness would be determined by the affect of the consequences in the eyes of a utilitarian. Thirdly, utilitarians would attack Kant on his reasoning part of the theory. According to utilitarians there is no compelling reason that the prohibition against certain actions should hold without exceptions. Utilitarianism will allow for circumstances of different situations to be factored into the consequences. Therefore, Kants theory of no exceptions, will not encompass total reasoning. Reasoning alone can not prevent certain actions from taking place. Especially when the good of the greatest doesnt factor in the decision making process. Reasoning is an internal personal choice.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Explication Of Jacques Derridas Signature Event Context English Language Essay Derridas essay Signature Event Context was first delivered in the form of a spoken conference paper in Montreal in 1971 on the theme of Communication, and published initially as an essay as part of the conference Proceedings. The context of Derridas essay is relevant in relation to the theme of the paper itself. In its initial form, a spoken essay preformed or produced in the French language, the essay (now in its written English form), discusses the importance and differences of context in both the written language and in speech.Ã Ã The essay was then published in 1988 in Graffs collection Limited Inc., which highlighted the differences between Anglo-American and European-Continental towards the theoretical debate on literary analysis.Ã Ã The historical context of the essay is relevant to the themes of original meaning and context which are discussed within the essay. Derrida discusses the distinction between the nature of truth and language, and he presents arguments on the privileging of spoken words, which is deemed as being closer to the speaker and thereby the intended meaning; whereas written words are given a secondary status and the meaning is derived by the understanding of the listener. Derrida examines the meaning of context, and then the significance of context in relation to other factors surrounding a text, such as events, discourses and signature. He argues that these issues all factor into the meaning of the text as it is produced by the writer or speaker, and then understood by the listener or reader. Derrida begins the essay in a discussion on the nature and definition of Communication, when Derrida states: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦one must first of all ask oneself whether or not the word or signifier communication communicates a determinate content, an identifiable meaning, or a describable value. (Derrida 1). The word or signifier communication occurs twice, in the marked form communication, and again as the verb form communicates. For the reader the use of the word in this way signifies a question which must be explored in the text of the essay. For Derrida this is a rhetorical question. As readers and as a writer approaching the text, if the word communication had a definite or indisputable meaning, there would be no need for a discussion or essay on the subject. This is typical of Derridas stylistic approach in the rhetorical questioning which occurs throughout the text of the essay. The essay is then structured into three sections discussing the factors mentioned in the title Signature Event Context, and Derrida uses examples from other theorists in order to present his arguments for each element. In the first section on Writing and Communication Derrida looks at the arguments of Condillacs essayÃ Ã because it : Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦contains an explicit reflection on the origin and function of the written textÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦which organizes itself here within a philosophical discourse that, in this case and throughout philosophy, presupposes the simplicity of the origin, the continuity of all derivation, of all production, of all analysis, and the homogeneity of all dimensions [orders]. (Derrida 4) In using Condillac Derrida is presenting the philosophical ideas on theories of writing from a classical theoretical perspective, whereby writing is taken as presenting the original ideas of the writer and all contributing factors to the writing such as origin, production, derivation and analysis and essentially equal in nature and quality. There is thus no hierarchical system to the elements which form writing, and all contributing factors producing a text, are equal in their importance and relevance to the formation and understanding of the text. Derrida suggests that Condillacs ideas on writing mean that: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the birth and progress of writing will follow in a line that is direct, simple, and continuousÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦writing will never have the slightest effect on either the structure or the contents of the meaning (the ideas) that it is supposed to transmit [vehicular]. (Derrida 4) Here Derrida presents Condillacs analysis, whereby if writing is taken as a higher medium of communication than spoken language, the origin and progression of the writing remains an absolute which is uncomplicated and incorruptible; this therefore means that the written form is also constant in its meaning, and for the understanding of the reader. Derrida takes issue with the notion of an absolute meaning of the written later in his essay, and instead suggests that the only absolute in writing is the idea of absence. For Condillac, all writing denotes an absence. There is firstly the: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦absence of the addressee. One writes in order to communicate something to those who are absent. The absence of the receiver [destinateur], from the mark that he abandons, and which cuts itself off from him and continues to produce effects independently of his presence and of the present actuality of his intentions [vouloir-dire]Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Derrida 5) The act of writing denotes an absence of the writer (absent at the time of reading), and the absence of the reader (absent at the time of the writing), which means that the writing exists independently of both reader and writer and is yet paradoxically linked to a presence. The writer is present in the writing at the time of reading because his/her intentions are made in the words that are written; the reader is present at the time of writing because the writer is intending to communicate an idea in his/her writing through the act of writing. The act of writing therefore implies the absence of both reader and writer. The writing is an independent entity which stands on its own merits after it is abandoned by the writer, yet still causes an effect on the reader; this effect is also autonomous from the actual intentions of the writer, as the understanding and interpretation depend on the reader. This brings Derrida to the second absolute in writing, which is the absence of a definitive meaning. As Derrida states: Representation regularly supplants [supplÃ ©e] presenceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦as a continuous and homogenous reparation and modification of presence in the representation. (Derrida 5) The presence of the writer is therefore denoted in the manner in which the text is received by the reader, whose understanding and interpretation of the text are founded not in the ideas which the writer is trying to communicate, but rather in a more practical system of understanding signs. The systematic rules of writing are based on the understanding of the written word; this is founded in language systems, which according to Derrida are only understandable because of their familiarity. Although signs give a representation of the idea which itself represented the object perceived (Derrida 6), it is only the familiarity which makes them understandable. Derrida states: My communication must be repeatable iterable in the absolute absence of the receiverÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦writing that is not structurally readable iterable beyond the death of the addressee would not be writing. (Derrida 7) The signs (words) must therefore be repeatable and repeated in different circumstances in order to be perceived and understand as to what they are signifying; and more importantly for Derrida what they are denoting or connoting. If the purpose of writing is to convey or communicate the writers ideas, the nature of language and words are a representation of something which is repeatable, no matter who the reader (or writer). Whereby writing is initially a means of communication, the actual physical marks and the meaning must have iterability, citability or citationality. All writing can be copied, or must be copyable in order to be classified as writing; therefore it must be open to both iteration and reiteration. For Derrida signs or writing, are essentially infinite in their iterability, in any capacity whether epistemic, grammatical or semiological; thus lies the distinction between written and oral communication (Derrida 9). Derrida also states that in the classical concept of writing, writing simultaneously carries with it a force that breaks with its context (Derrida 9). Derrida goes on to present an analysis of spoken language/signs from Husserl.Ã Ã Again the iterability of spoken language is essential to the understanding of what is signified, denoted and understood by the listener, because language operates within a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦system of rules of universal grammar, not from a linguistic point of view but from a logical and epistemological one. (Derrida 12). This means one must be able to make certain other cultural, social and epistemological references which are understood, and thereby enable an understanding of words or spoken language. Derrida once again opens up his discussion of writing into a wider analysis of language, communication and cultural relevance. For Derrida the significance lies in that understanding is thereby taken Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦in a context determined by a will to know (Derrida 12). The understanding of language and words, whether spoken or written lie in the wider context in which they are read or heard, rather a specific literal context of semantic meaning. This leads to the second section of the essay where Derrida discusses the notion of truth in language, through an examination of the event. Derridas analysis centres on criticism of AustinsÃ Ã ideas of communication in speech: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦speech acts only as acts of communicationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.Communicating a force through the impetus [impulsion] of a mark Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the performative does not have its referent Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦outside of itself or any event, before and in front of itself. (Derrida 13) Derrida suggests here that John Austins ordinary language philosophy is in fact determined and restrictive, working only within a framework of definitively absolute unordinary exclusion; as Austin suggests that the performative nature of language takes precedent in communication. Austin analyses all utterances as performative, yet excludes performative speech acts which are quoted, which Derrida finds essentially problematic. This approach is limiting and restrictive, by focussing primarily on analysing the perlocution and illocution, Austin is forced to: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦free the analysis of the performative from the authority of the truth value, from the true/false opposition (Derrida 13). If language or words take on a performative dimension, this means that the utterances of the words will be placed within a situation (or context) which is independent of either the true essential meaning, or any false interpretation, of the intended meaning. The problem for Derrida is that the meaning of the words are essentially subordinated to the actual utterance or event of the speech, and/or the context within which they are uttered; which in turn produces an event in the meaning as it is understood by the listener. Derridas criticism of Austin also raises questions as to the totalising element of context whereby there is emphasis on the: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦conscious presence of the intention of the speaking subject in the totality of his speech act (Derrida 14) In the event of the speech act the presence of the speaker places an importance and foregrounding to the intention of the speaker; if the intention of the speaker is prominent in the speech act, then it must follow that the understanding of the receiver/listener becomes secondary. This leads to the inevitability that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦performative communication becomes once more the communication of an intentional meaningÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Derrida 14) This poses a wider philosophical problem for Derrida in the context of literary or language discourse, as Austin also discusses the criterion of what actually constitutes a successful or failed speech act with elements of correctness and completeness (Derrida 15). This again is restrictive and finite, and goes against Derridas general philosophical openness and approach to literary theory. For Derrida there is an inherent possibility in the success of the event which lays in the possibilities of for example the infelicities in the event, and may not in fact be distinguishable from a successful event. For Derrida the failure of the event, whether deliberate or accidental, serves a greater purpose. Derrida suggests that the presence or potential of failure is what in fact constitutes the event as an ideal. The scope for error and the negative impact on the event, whilst it may destroy the idealistic approach to the event, in fact serves the paradoxical purpose of making the event ideal; by in its very nature in introducing an element of danger to the event. A perfect or ideal event would therefore have an element of danger, which is avoided. Although Austin cites theatrical events, recitations of poetry or literature as examples of felicitous speech events, as Derrida points out there is still scope for mistakes or errors in the utterances. Derrida ends the section on Event by taking an opposing view to Austin, in the similar vein to his opposition to Condillacs views and refers to the itability of the sign in general. Derrida states that speech utterances, or events have an itability. Austins view of the relative purity of performatives (Derrida 18) must be taken not: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦in opposition to citationality or iterability, but in opposition to other kinds of iteration within a general iterability which constitutes a violation of the allegedly rigorous purity of every event of discourse or every speech act. (Derrida 18) Derridas view on the event of the speech act is that there is a background to the iterability or possible repetition of an utterance, which means that each utterance or speech act must be taken in the context in which it is said. This has an inevitable effect on the operation or understanding of the words which are spoken and what they signify. Contrary to Austins view that emphasise understanding of the thing and the notion (Derrida 18), Derrida stresses that we must also consider that the: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦motivations, indestructible necessity and systematic effects would be subject to analysisÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Derrida 18) Here the importance of context is fore grounded in relation to the event and is subject to the same metaphysical origins (Derrida 18) which Austin appropriates to the event. Derrida concludes by suggesting that in order to understand context, the conscious intentions of the speaker (and receiver) must be definite. However consciousness is not a definite and is open to discussion and discourse. Therefore although utterances may be specific, the specificity is not exclusive to having an opposite or contrary effect on the listener and thus the event is open to further metaphysical debate. In the final section of the essay Derrida focuses on Signature' as an indicator and measure of the presence of the writer or author. The signature denotes the writer as the source of the text, or the speaker of an utterance, and they hold the form of regulation for the sign or words which are spoken or written. Derrida illustrates that the possibility and inevitability of repetition and iterability is essential to the signature; as with earlier discussions on the nature of signs and language. By its very nature the signature is iterable, as it must be, and is always repeated in order to be recognisable as a signature specific to the author. As Derrida points out although a signature is singular to the author, yet again paradoxically, there is an inevitable plurality to its production; in that it is repeated time and again as a sign of the presence of the writer. Derrida refers back to earlier arguments stating that: By definition, a written signature implies the actual or empirical nonpresence of the signer. (Derrida 20) The signature thereby signifies the absence of the writer, while at the same time denoting the presence of the signer in the past, and can be taken as a substitute for their physical presence; it also implies the presence of the reader in the future or present. Derrida also rather playfully adds his own signature to the end of the essay, as a performative example of an event. As readers we are made aware that Derrida must have at some point made the signature to the paper, however the printed copy of the signature in front of us is not the original or authentic mark/sign made by Derrida, it is an repeated printed copy of the same. This act highlights key elements of Derridas arguments from the essay, as to the nature of iterability, repetition, absence and context. The communication of Derridas ideas in the preceding essay are somehow signified as more genuine, or sincere because he has placed his signature at the end of the essay and placed a mark/sign of authenticity to the essay. Derridas conclusions to the essay tie in with this idea, in that while language can be philosophised in an ordinary manner, as a means of communicating semantics, there is always an underlying and infinite possibility to other factors such as presence, knowledge , representation, and truth. For Derrida the practice of communication and the spoken word or writing must be inclusive of these elements in order for a text to be understood or communicated in its entirety. Derridas stylistic presence is evident in the title and structure of the essay, in the use of questions, often at times rhetorical, and the proposition of paradoxes. The essay is actually structured in the reverse order of the title Signature Event Context: Context is discussed first in presentation of Condillacs ideas, followed by Austins arguments on the Event, and the essay ends with Derridas thoughts on Signature.Ã Ã This playing with the order of the elements which Derrida is discussing is somewhat typical of Derridas stylistic and consciously playful approach to writing. At times the language and style is analogous to the spoken word or a speech; which again is self-referential to the form of the text, as it was initially a spoken text/utterance. The form and structure of the essay reiterates the ideas and arguments that Derrida presents. The essay is structured in a fairly accessible yet formal manner whereby Derrida at times breaks arguments or ideas down into listed or numbered sections. Although the complexity of the ideas and concepts presented are perhaps more complicated than the stylistic form of the written language. Derrida repeats certain points and arguments, by presenting his theories in a manner which reiterates the essence of his arguments, and by repeating the same central arguments in a slightly altered form. He uses repetition of the arguments to make the ideas that he is presenting familiar and understandable to the reader, and this is his general approach to the function and understanding of language, signs and words the more familiar we become with words, the easier they are to understand in their true meaning. The meaning lies in the repetition and iterability not only of the words, but also in the concepts and ideas which lie beneath the semantics of the sentences and content of the essay. Derridas arguments are therefore communicated to us as readers when we read and understand the text in the context of the structure of the essay, and experience the text as part of a wider cultural discourse.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Difference Between Role of Treasurer and Controller Difference between Role of treasurer and controller with respect to Financial Corporate Governance Organization Chart of the Financial Management The chief finance executive works directly under the president or the managing director of the company. Besides routine network, the person in charge keeps the Board of Directors informed about all the phases of business activity, including economics, social and political developments affecting the business behavior. He also furnishes information about the financial status of the company by reviewing it from time to time. The chief finance executive may have many officers under him to carry out his function. Broadly his functions are divided into two types: Treasury function Control functions An illustrative organization chart of finance function of management in a big organization is shown below: Organization of the Financial Management Function Role of Treasurer The main role of Treasurer is that he refers to the financial officer and then looks at the task of financing and its related activities. Treasury always deals with liquid assets and so the main role of treasurer is to look at the cash and its other liquid assets. Some important tasks of Treasurer are as follows: He formulate the whole capital structure of the organization in accordance to goals of the organization and then to implement it to the organization. He also manages the amount of liquid assets and all type of cash. He basically acts as a cashier. He plays the role of an authority signatory on payment cheques including the authority to approve such cheques. Reconciliation in bank accounts. He manages the overall credit function of the firm. He also has the authority to utilize the surplus cash of the company whenever there is any type of short term beneficial investments. He also makes the companies policies according to decision on trade discounts and vendor payment. He also maintains relationships with bankers and vendors. All of the above mentioned functions of treasurer are implemented with the help of cash manger, finance manager and credit manager. Role of controller As we have already seen that the treasurer deals with liquid assets, the controller of the organization has to record the transactions of these liquid assets. It is the combined and effective working of both the departments that give rise to an effective system of internal controls. Controller is a financial officer responsible for accounting and control. He does the following functions: Records all the transactions in the general ledger, the accounts receivables and the accounts payables, sub-ledger, transaction with respect to fixed assets such as depreciation, inventory control, etc. He looks into the aspects of taxes and insurance. He also keeps track of companys short term investments by recording and reconciling the transaction with those of the brokerage firms. He carefully looks into the regulatory aspects and implementation of the companys policy on trade discounts and recievables aging. He always acts as the planning director. He keeps a record of the attendance of the employees, their movement timings so as to facilitate in preparing the payroll. He reports information to the management. The office bearer who assists the controller in accomplishing the above tasks is: tax manager, data processing manager, cost accounting manager and accounting manager. Thus the functions of financial accounting, internal audit, taxation, management accountings and control, budget-planning and control are accomplished in this manner. Controllers and Treasurers functions in the Indian Context The controller and the treasurer are essentially American terms. Basically the American pattern of dividing the financial executives functions is not being widely followed in India. We do have a number of copies having officers with the designation of the controller. The controller or the financial controller in India, by and large performs the function of a chief accountant or management accountant. The officer with the title of treasurer can also be found in a few companies in India. The controllership functions can prove to be useful under the Indian context, but presently some of these duties are performed by the company secretary in India. His duties, for example includes asset control and protection, maintaining records and preparing reports and government reporting. The economic appraisal function is generally performed at the top level in India. Some other functions, such as internal audit, can be brought within the fold of the controllership functions, if this concept is developed in the Indian context. It should be realized that the financial controller does not control finances; he or she develops, uses and interpret information- some of which will be financial for management control and planning. For this reason, the financial controller may simply be called as controller. Management of finance or money is a separate and important activity. Traditionally, the accountants have been involved in managing money in India. But the difference in managing money resources should be appreciated. In the American business, the management of finance is treated as a separate activity and is being performed by the treasurer. The title of treasurer has not found favor in India to the extent the controller has. Some of the functions performed by the treasurer in the American context are again discharged by the company secretary in India. Insurance coverage is an example in this regard. The function of maintaining relations with investors may now assume significance in India because of the development in the Indian capital markets and the increasing awareness among investors. The general title, financial manager, seems to more popular in India. This title is also better than the title of treasurer since it conveys the functions involved. The main function of the financial manager in India should be the managements of companys funds. The financial duties may often be combined with others. But the significance of not combining the financial managers duties with others should be realized. The managing of funds- a very valuable resource- is a business activity requiring extraordinary skill on the part of financial manager. He should ensure the optimum use of money under various constraints. He should, therefore be allowed to devote his full energy and time in managing the money resources only. Functions of Treasurer and the Controller CASE STUDY The role of the corporate treasurers has changed from a traditional one of securing funds and managing financial risk to a strategic one of driving overall business initiatives. In this new role, treasures have the prime responsibility of advocating better corporate governance principles in the company, both as a means to improve the shareholder value and to enhance investor confidence. This has become very important because the corporate governance practices of the companies are being placed under heavy scrutiny from the regulators and investors following revelations of corporate malfeasance, deception and fraud. This article discusses the role of the treasurers in building a sound governance structure in the companies. Description The debacle in Satyam Computers Limited, Indias fourth largest software company, has brought the issue of corporate governance in limelight more particularly in India. It is however unfortunate that such important issues gain prominence only after incidents of corporate frauds. The issue of corporate governance was earlier debated when the developments at Enron and WorldCom rocked the world. As India is on a growth trajectory and is having ambitions of being ranked in the counters of the developed economies, the issue of corporate governance only being surfaced after the Satyam scam is a grave concern. We may claim that the Satyam scam is an isolated case in corporate India, but it is more important to see how the rest of world assesses our seriousness towards the ethics of corporate governance. Do we take the ethics of corporate governance seriously and deeply and drift it away from its ornamental value to run an enterprise towards the principal goal for which the corporate governance term was coined? Largely the practice is to decorate the board, which is at the helm of affairs of corporate governance, with people whom the promoters of the company believe will add some ornamental value to the enterprise. Many a times the promoters induct known people onto the board. Having said that companies prefer the decorative value of the board over its usefulness. Thus one can ea sily conclude that the Satyam fiasco is nothing but a true reflection of what routinely and pervasively passes for corporate governance. The role of treasurer is crucial to todays business especially in ensuring that the company has the cash that it needs to operate the business, adequate risk management systems are in place and finally ensuring that the company complies with the various international standards. The treasurer and cash have a consanguineous relationship and the recent fiasco of Satyam Computers reveals a story of siphoning the cash from the companys balance sheet which puts the role of the treasurer or CFO nothing but on dubious distinction. By the mere definition of a treasurer one understands that wherever there is cash in the company, the treasurer has to be present there. Though the Satyam fraud appears to be a systemic fraud by the senior management, nevertheless such frauds can be mitigated to some extent if corporate governance is compiled by the treasurer. In such a scenario it becomes altogether more important for corporate treasurers to revisit the basics of corporate governance and their rol e in inculcating the principles of corporate governance in a company. This article highlights and revisits the role played by the treasurers or CFO in the compliance of corporate governance. Treasurer in Detail The Treasurers role is the second most important function on the Board after that of the Chair. Financial accountability is fundamental to not-for-profit organisations. If your members have no confidence in your ability to control and account for finances, they will have no confidence in the organisation as a whole. The Treasurer may find a reluctance amongst non-financially trained board members to take any responsibility for finance. As a Board or governing committee however, the group as a whole has to share responsibility and decision-making and it will therefore be an important part of the Treasurers role to ensure that others understand the information that is being presented and the implications thereof. It is particularly important that the Treasurer attends meetings regularly in order that others can ask questions and be sure that they have a full understanding of the associations financial position. Purpose To manage and report on the associations finances. Responsibilities To carry out the responsibilities of a member of the Board of Directors. To lead budget planning and preparations. To monitor the budget and inform the Board as to whether projections are turning out as predicted in order that joint decisions can be made on appropriate adjustments. To ensure the Boards financial policies are being followed. To report to the Board of Directors and the general membership on finances. To prepare any required financial reporting forms. To ensure tax regulations are complied with VAT. To manage and maintain bank accounts, ensuring the association is getting the best rate of return for funds held and moving money between accounts as To oversee all financial transactions. To sign cheques (with a second signatory from the Board or staff). To chair finance sub-committee, if one exists. TREASURER WORKING WITH A BOOKKEEPER. Most treasures do not have bookkeeping expertise, and they need not and ideally should not spend their time on day-to-day financial administration. Wherever possible, a suitably experienced/qualified paid (or volunteer) bookkeeper should be responsible for banking, for processing payments, for keeping full and accurate accounts of all receipts and expenditure and for producing financial reports. This leaves the Treasurers time for the more strategic and managerial aspects of the role, in particular budgeting and planning. The Treasurer does however need to monitor the work of the bookkeeper as ultimate responsibility for the accuracy of records lies with his or her role. If your association needs to submit formal annual statements to tax or other government authorities, these may be prepared by your bookkeeper or by external accountants. Requirements will vary in different countries. In the UK, all limited companies must have their final accounts prepared by a chartered accountant. Becoming a Good Treasurer A treasurer does not have to study accounting or business in order to do well at this position. A good treasurer will be characterized by the following traits: 1.Ã Honesty and Integrity:Ã As treasurer you are not given free liberty to do whatever you like. Rather, you are accountable to God, the fellowship and the committee. Therefore, perform your task properly and professionally. 2.Ã Carefulness:Ã This characteristic will help you maintain accurate and up-to-date records. Be careful to record all transactions. Be careful when handling money because ultimately this money belongs to God. 3.Ã Common sense:Ã Common sense is necessary in order to catch errors early. 4.Ã Open books:Ã It is good to maintain an open book policy concerning financial matters. Any member of the fellowship, after consultation with the committee, should be able to see the financial state of the fellowship. This will help build accountability and credibility for the entire fellowship. 5.Ã Watchful eye:Ã The treasurer needs to be vigilant in tracking income and expenses. These amounts should be compared with the current budget. 6.Ã Faithfulness to God:Ã Ultimately, the treasurer brings honor to God by the proper exercise of his/her task. Therefore, view your position of treasurer as a way to show your faithfulness to God. Heres an excellent maxim: Gods work done in Gods time will receive Gods provision. Controller Vs Treasurer While the term Controller is used differently in Sweden than in America, there is reason for a clear explanation of the differences between Controller and Treasurer. The fact that a Controller in Sweden has a broader role than the Controller in America can be explained largely by the function of the treasurer that has those duties overlapping those of the Swedish Controller. In large firms, the financial operations overseen by the CFO will split into two branches, with one headed by the treasurer and the other by the controller. The Controllers responsibility are primarily accounting in nature. Costs accounting as well as budgets and forecast concerning internal consumptions, lies within the area of the Controller. The treasurers responsibility fall into the decision areas most commonly associated with financial management, invest financing and asset management. The organization chart may give you false impression that a clear splits exists between controller and treasurer responsibilities. In a well-functioning firm, information will flow easily back and forth between both branches. In small firms the treasurer and controller functions may be combined into one position with a resulting commingling of activities. Traditionally the role of controller has been that of a number cruncher, computing financial data in order to prepare reports. The assignment associated with the controller role is in no way set in stone, different organizations have different duties attached to the Controller. The final statement where the controller should be seen as a long range developer of executives, hints at a prominent role when it comes to developing human resources within organizations. In order for the controllers department to become developers of accounting and operating executives they have to have an intimate relation to the personnel of the organization.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR II, A ROMANTICISED Ã¢â¬ËSPECIAL RELATIONSHIPÃ¢â¬â¢ between the United States and Britain has been referenced on countless occasions in speeches, books, and essays by academics and statesmen on both sides of the Atlantic.Ã The relationship has multiple definitions, with no precise doctrine or formal agreement that outlines its tenets, and has been apparent in a myriad of interactions between the two countries. It is visibly apparent culturally as the United States evolved from a nucleus of British settlers to become an English-speaking country, sharing with Great Britain Ã¢â¬Ëjoint aimsÃ¢â¬â¢ and a Ã¢â¬Ëcommon heritageÃ¢â¬â¢, as is often referenced in political rhetoric, and by David Watt in his introduction to the book The Special Relationship (D. Watt 1).Ã Yet this perceived relationship between these two countries has gone beyond a joint appreciation for the literature of William Shakespeare and the flavour of a Burger King Whopper to become manifest in political and military relations between the United States and Britain. Winston Churchill was first to prominently recognise an Anglo-American Ã¢â¬Ëspecial relationshipÃ¢â¬â¢, stating in the years immediately following World War II that he saw the relationship between the US and the UK as an Ã¢â¬Ëalliance of equalsÃ¢â¬â¢, according to Sir Michael Howard in the Afterward of The Special Relationship (Howard 387).Ã Howard writes that Britain in general saw the Ã¢â¬Ëspecial relationshipÃ¢â¬â¢ as a vehicle for the United States Ã¢â¬Ëto accept and underwrite BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s status as a coequal world powerÃ¢â¬â¢ (387). As time passed, however, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s standing a Great Power quickly diminished.Ã Despite this, British possession of nuclear weapons, United Nations Security Council membership, access to political an... ...Ernest R. and Gregory F. Treverton.Ã Ã¢â¬ËDefence Relationships: American PerspectivesÃ¢â¬â¢. The Special Relationship.Ã Ed. William Rogers Louis and Hedley Bull.Ã Oxford:Ã Clarendon Press, 1986.Ã 161-184. Perkins, Bradford.Ã Ã¢â¬ËUnequal Partners: The Truman Administration and Great BritainÃ¢â¬â¢. The Special Relationship.Ã Ed. William Rogers Louis and Hedley Bull.Ã Oxford:Ã Clarendon Press, 1986.Ã 43-64. Rothwell, Victor.Ã Anthony Eden.Ã Manchester: Manchester U.P., 1992. Walker, Martin.Ã The Cold War.Ã London:Ã Fourth Estate Ltd., 1993. Watt, D. Cameron.Ã Ã¢â¬ËDemythologising the Eisenhower EraÃ¢â¬â¢. The Special Relationship.Ã Ed. William Rogers Louis and Hedley Bull.Ã Oxford:Ã Clarendon Press, 1986.Ã 65-86. Watt, David.Ã Ã¢â¬ËIntroduction: The Anglo-American RelationshipÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã The Special Relationship.Ã Ed. William Rogers Louis and Hedley Bull.Ã Oxford:Ã Clarendon Press, 1986.Ã 1-16.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Book Review of "The Burning Man" by Phillip Margolin Peter Hale, the son of Richard Hale, a four-year associate at Hale, Greaves, Strobridg, Marquand, and Bartlett, has lived his life under the shadow of his father. Despite having a high five-figure salary and fire-engine-red Porsche, Peter was constantly trying to overcome the expectations of his high- class lawyer of a father, who was former president of the Oregon State Bar. Handling only small-time cases did not present Peter with the opportunity to outshine his father, who was also a second-team All-American football player and National Champion wrestler, but when his father had a heart attack and could no longer handle a million dollar case in which Peter had been helping him, Peter could not let the opportunity pass. As Richard Hale lied helpless in a hospital bed, he demanded Peter ask for a mistrial, but it seemed only to go in one ear of Peter's and out the other. Peter's boldness would be costly though, as he would lose the case and lose his father. Richard did not die, but when he heard of his son's error he could not forgive him and couldn't bare to see him anymore. Only a fatherly instinct would force Richard to find a meager job for his helpless son in a small town with an old friend who was looking for someone trying to regain status as Peter now was. Whitaker was not as exciting as Portland was to Peter, but he began to be accustomed to the town when he began his handling small criminal cases and ran into an old friend who graduated with him from highschool, Steve Mancini. Steve, like Peter's father, was a football star, but at the Division II level for the Whitaker State football team. Hale became close with Mancini and met many other residents of Whitaker through Steve. One being Steve's beautiful and intelligent fiance, Donna Harmon and her slightly retarded brother Gary. Just as things began to become settled for Peter in Whitaker, he ran into some problems with Gary Harmon. Peter had to save him once from the police in a peeping incident and then became Gary's lead attorney, under some influence from Steve Mancini, as Gary was charged with the murder of a local college girl. The night of the murder, Gary had been at a local bar, the Stallion, and had gotten into an argument with a girl whom he had asked to buy a drink for. Despite the assurance of a local drug-dealer friend of Gary's, Kevin Booth and his friend, Christopher Mammon, the college girl had rejected Gary heavily not
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Family Institution (High Divorce Rates) Have you ever been to a traditional wedding? They are the most beautiful breath taking experience that you have ever seen; many symbols like the exchange of rings, uniting candle, flowers, brideÃ¢â¬â¢s maids and best man, and the bride in a beautiful white dress. Also weddings are a lot of fun too. They are the start of a family institution. On the flip side they are expensive and stressful for the couple at hand and the odds of staying together are only one out of every five marriages ended divorced within the first five years.Nowadays unlike the past more people are living together without getting married. According to the Associated Press the divorce rate was down to the lowest at 3. 6% (per 1000) since the 1970. The peak of divorce was in 1981 it was 5. 3% (per 1000). Some experts still say that marriages are as unstable as ever, but because couples are living together instead of marrying the rates are lower for marriages too. So it makes sense that the divorce would be down because not as many couples are getting married and living together instead and there is no data that shows at break-up unlike divorce has data.Nowadays, divorce is one of the most serious social problems that American society is currently facing. This is why it is extremely important to find out the main factors contributing to the growth of the divorce rate and possible solutions of the problem. Families are structured through marriage and reproduction is needed to keep the family institutions health and operating in society. There are many causes of divorce, just to name a few: changing womanÃ¢â¬â¢s roles, lack of stability, domestic violence, and lack of communication, which are highlighted below.Some solutions to these problems are needed because divorce plays a very significant role in the life of society, family and each individual. The first significant cause of recent rise in the rates of divorce is that women completely change in rol es. In the past, men had to earn all the money to afford the expense of family, whereas woman only do housework, since women have no money leading to depend on husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ money. Because of these situations, it is too difficult for most women to separate from their husbands. Nonetheless, these situations entirely changed nowadays. The quality between men and women in roles are very clear at the moment, thus women can work outside to earn money, while men share the household tasks such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes as well as caring for children. It can be clearly seen that women are independent from money as they can earn money by them to support their living cost. But this as I stated has been huge changes and not always accepted in all marriages. Next letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at stability with the high rates of company down sizing. Many people are losing their highly paid job and either canÃ¢â¬â¢t replace it or have to replace it with a much lower paying job.This is a big problem because couples are not able to make their monthly mortgages and the relationship because very stressful. Many even have to turn to other resources such as government funded programs. Stress like this leads to divorce in some cases. Domestic violence is another big reason couples are getting divorce, because of the no-fault divorce it is more accepted that if you want out of the marriage just go get a divorce. Prior to 1969, countries which permitted divorces also required proof by one party that the other party had committed an act incompatible to the marriage.This was termed Ã¢â¬Å"groundsÃ¢â¬ for divorce (popularly called Ã¢â¬Å"faultÃ¢â¬ ) and was the only way to terminate a marriage. Most jurisdictions around the world still require such proof of fault. In the United States, no-fault divorce is now available in all 50 states and the a District of Columbia-New York, the last state to still require fault-based divorce, passed a bill this year (2010) permitting no-fau lt divorce.According to Time magazine women are simple happier with out men and father are not necessary. Media has a high impact on the belief that shows like Sex and the City are the new shape of society. Women are financial stabile and donÃ¢â¬â¢t need men for financial stability. Family Institution (High Divorce Rates) Have you ever been to a traditional wedding? They are the most beautiful breath taking experience that you have ever seen; many symbols like the exchange of rings, uniting candle, flowers, brideÃ¢â¬â¢s maids and best man, and the bride in a beautiful white dress.Also weddings are a lot of fun too. They are the start of a family institution. On the flip side they are expensive and stressful for the couple at hand and the odds of staying together are only one out of every five marriages ended divorced within the first five years. Nowadays unlike the past more people are living together without getting married. According to the Associated Press the divorce rate wa s down to the lowest at 3. 6% (per 1000) since the 1970. The peak of divorce was in 1981 it was 5. 3% (per 1000).Some experts still say that marriages are as unstable as ever, but because couples are living together instead of marrying the rates are lower for marriages too. So it makes sense that the divorce would be down because not as many couples are getting married and living together instead and there is no data that shows at break-up unlike divorce has data. Nowadays, divorce is one of the most serious social problems that American society is currently facing. This is why it is extremely important to find out the main factors contributing to the growth of the divorce rate and possible solutions of the problem.Families are structured through marriage and reproduction is needed to keep the family institutions health and operating in society. There are many causes of divorce, just to name a few: changing womanÃ¢â¬â¢s roles, lack of stability, domestic violence, and lack of comm unication, which are highlighted below. Some solutions to these problems are needed because divorce plays a very significant role in the life of society, family and each individual. The first significant cause of recent rise in the rates of divorce is that women completely change in roles.In the past, men had to earn all the money to afford the expense of family, whereas woman only do housework, since women have no money leading to depend on husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ money. Because of these situations, it is too difficult for most women to separate from their husbands. Nonetheless, these situations entirely changed nowadays. The equality between men and women in roles are very clear at the moment, thus women can work outside to earn money, while men share the household tasks such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes as well as caring for children.It can be clearly seen that women are independent from money as they can earn money by them to support their living cost. But this as I stated has been huge changes and not always accepted in all marriages. Next letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at stability with the high rates of company down sizing. Many people are losing their highly paid job and either canÃ¢â¬â¢t replace it or have to replace it with a much lower paying job. This is a big problem because couples are not able to make their monthly mortgages and the relationship because very stressful. Many even have to turn to other resources such as government funded programs.Stress like this leads to divorce in some cases. Domestic violence is another big reason couples are getting divorce, because of the no-fault divorce it is more accepted that if you want out of the marriage just go get a divorce. Prior to 1969, countries which permitted divorces also required proof by one party that the other party had committed an act incompatible to the marriage. This was termed Ã¢â¬Å"groundsÃ¢â¬ for divorce (popularly called Ã¢â¬Å"faultÃ¢â¬ ) and was the only way to terminate a marriage. Most jurisdictions around the world still require such proof of fault.In the United States, no-fault divorce is now available in all 50 states and the a District of Columbia-New York, the last state to still require fault-based divorce, passed a bill this year (2010) permitting no-fault divorce. According to Time magazine women are simple happier with out men and father are not necessary. Media has a high impact on the belief that shows like Sex and the City are the new shape of society. Women are financial stabile and donÃ¢â¬â¢t need men for financial stability.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Shakespeare wrote Macbeth during an age in which the supernatural was a part of everyday life for the people of England. Prior to the wave of Christianity that swept through England, local chieftains and ordinary citizens had been firm believers in witchcraft, spells and fairies. King James had written books on the subject, giving the subject credibility in the eyes of his people. The idea of demons and witches tempting good people to do bad things was widely accepted, especially since the Bible itself made references to the devil. The introduction of the witches in the very first scene of Macbeth would have created a very intriguing effect and would have been accepted by the audience. Another fact that played an important role in the way ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s audiences reacted to his plot was the social order and the hierarchy of the spectators who watched his plays. Only three classes existed which were the rich, the merchant middle class and the poor class. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays were performed at the Globe theatre which acted as a model for other theatres around the country. It is said that the balconies on top were the most expensive seats and these seats were occupied by the rich and noble people at the time. The next sets were the rows of seats on either side of the stage which the merchant and middle class would view the play from. The lowest category of people occupied the area immediately in front of the stage, an area which stretched far back into the theater where the view was obscured by walls and other obstacles. Crowds were often herded tightly to fit in as many as possible in the smallest amount of space. This was the method of seating at the time. We deduce that all three classes of society had gone to the theatre to watch the play for various different reasons. It is clear that each segment of the audience would have viewed Macbeth from different perspectives to the first Act of the play. The first scene of the first act would not have been a familiar theme to the educated and rich people in the balconies as they lived in a world of wealth, money and luxury far from witch craft, demons, hatred and evil. The dark and gloomy stage in this scene would have been very different from their well-lit, large and luxurious homes It is something they would not have been able to relate to except the fact that they knew that it was just a play which was based on supernatural elements that were common in that era. On the other hand, the middle and lower classes would have focused more on the dramatic structure and elements in the scene. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"In thunder, lightning or in rain?Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Sc.1 Ln. 2) gives an audience a feeling of iniquity because in those days the belief was that bad weather was a sign from God showing unhappiness and anger. Ã¢â¬Å"When the hurly burlyÃ¢â¬â¢s done when the battles lost and wonÃ¢â¬ (Act 1 Sc. 1 Ln. 4), the unnatural rhyming conversation would have all conveyed to an exciting sense of horror. Another factor of the scene that should be taken into consideration is that not all of the conversation makes sense for example if you take Ã¢â¬Å"Fair is foul, and foul is fair Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Sc. 1 Ln. 12),The audience are also told that the witches will return, this eccentric way of speaking gets the audience thinking and brings a sense of eagerness to see what happens next. Moreover, this scene would also have reminded them of their own streets, with poor lighting, and the small dark homes they lived in. Similarly the three segments of the audience would have reacted differently to Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s soliloquy. As she finishes reading the letter from her husband, various feelings of greed and temptation enter her mind. She also has feelings of doubt and uncertainty she felt that Macbeth lacked courage and would not commit such an atrocious act, Ã¢â¬Å"yet do I fear thy nature, It is too full oÃ¢â¬â¢thÃ¢â¬â¢milk of human kindnessÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Sc. 5 Ln. 15). She then calls upon evil to remove her femininity from her. The intensity of this speech must have given all three segments of the audience a sense of trepidation and for some an enormous sense of rage and disgust. Ã¢â¬Å"The raven himself is hoarseÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Sc 5 Ln. 7),She uses raven which is recognized as an evil bird. Ã¢â¬Å"unsex me hereÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Sc.5 Ln.9), She wanted all the characteristics a woman had to have in those days, removed from her. Women were expected to be meek and gentle, no matter what the husband did. So if any female protested, she was immediately branded a Ã¢â¬ËbadÃ¢â¬â¢ woman in the mindÃ¢â¬â¢s of society. Some noble classes in the audience would be able to understand this as they too were probably experiencing similar situations in their lives. It was known that the audience lived in a patriarchy where woman had no power of their own. These women who were married to rich and superior men would often bully them for the married couple to rise in the hierarchy because that was the only way a woman could get a significant amount of power. Thus it would have appeared natural to the wealthier audience that this strong woman was able to force her husband to commit the ultimate crime, murder. It is likely that many in the audience would have also sympathized with Macbeth. It is also likely that some women in the audience were women who accepted the patriarchy system and did not question their husbands and were always willing to stay at the bottom of the hierarchy. These women would have found it difficult to imagine that such women existed. The other two segments of the audience would not have questioned the fact that Lady Macbeth could drive her husband to murder their king. These were people who never had any power and even the smallest possible notion of them being king would drive them into an immeasurable amount of temptation. The poor audiences, which would have certainly included men and women from the criminal classes, may have already committed heinous crimes before, would have had no problem with the idea of killing the king. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s long speech, in which he battles with the enormity of the crime he is going to commit, would certainly have obtained different reactions from the audience. In his speech he has an enormous amount of uncertainty in him. His confidence is almost destroyed as he tries to fight his conscience. As I have said before, religion was a key factor in those days. They did believe that committing an act as immense as killing the king, was such a heinous crime, because to the audience it was going against God himself. Ã¢â¬Å"So clear in his great office, that his virtues will plead like angels, trumpet Ã¢â¬â tongued against the deep damnation of his taking off.Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Sc. 7 Ln.20), In those days people were firm believers in the Ã¢â¬Ëdivine right of kingsÃ¢â¬â¢. It was a belief that said that only God could choose the king and nobody else. Macbeth never refers to the crime he is about to commit as murder. He alters the word by using various less dissonant synonyms like Ã¢â¬Å"assassinationÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"surceaseÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"bear the knifeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"taking offÃ¢â¬ . The educated audiences would have recognized the speech and reacted accordingly to the significance of the lines and MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt overcoming him. In my opinion, it is very likely that the middle and lower classes would soon have got bored due to the length of this speech, which does not have much excitement and horror as the soliloquy of Lady Macbeth. No matter which category the audience belonged, the use of magic and supernatural features on stage would have been a thrilling source of entertainment! The witches, thunder and lightening and murder would have delighted ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s audiences as much as todayÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas of aliens existing and high-tech special effects thrill us! In conclusion, it can be said that the Shakespearean audience cannot be classified as of one type only. Social backgrounds, levels of education and religious elements all played a role in the way each spectator reacted to Macbeth and his actions.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Macbeth, a dark and dramatized play, is very well-known. It was written by William Shakespeare between 1603 and 1607. Macbeth was a much respected person but his wife, Lady Macbeth, started to persuade him into things and he became an evil man. Macbeth was not mentally strong to handle all the pulling my Lady Macbeth. In the beginning of the play Macbeth is a respected general and a loyal subject of the king. A group of three withes tells him that he can be crowned king if something happened to King Duncan. But Macbeth makes the state: Ã¢â¬Å"If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me.Ã¢â¬ (1.3.56-57) That statement makes it clear that Macbeth does not have any thought in doing anything evil to be able to achieve being king. He does say Ã¢â¬Å"I dare do all that may become a man; Who dares do more is none.Ã¢â¬ (1.7.34-36.) this lets others know that Macbeth that he will do what it takes to become a man. When Macbeth tells Lady Macbeth what is going on she suffers none of his uncertainties. She tells him that he needs to murder Duncan so he can obtain the kingdom. He was unsure of himself but with the pushing of his wife, he got persuaded to kill the king. King Duncan was planning on coming to the Macbeths castle to dine, so Lady Macbeth and Macbeth put together a plan. Their plan was to get the two chamberlains drunk so they would black out and the next morning they could blame the murder on them as they will remember nothing. When Macbeth going to kill Macbeth he says this famous quote before grabbing the dagger, Ã¢â¬Å"Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee; I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling as to sight? or art thou but A dagger of the mind, a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain? I see thee yet, in form as palpable As this which now I draw.Ã¢â¬ (2.1.45-51) This quote shows that he is committed to kill Duncan and that he is seeing things and cannot tell reality from fantasy. Macbeth starts to worry about what he has down and barely sleep the night. Macbeth lets Lady Macbeth know when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Glamis hath murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor shall sleep no more. Macbeth shall sleep no more. (2.2.38-40) Fearing the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ prophecy that BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s heirs will get the throne, Macbeth gets a group together to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. Come, seeling night, Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day; And with thy bloody and invisible hand Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond Which keeps me pale! Light thickens; and the crow Makes wing to the rooky wood: Good things of day begin to droop and drowse; While nightÃ¢â¬â¢s black agents to their preys do rouse (3.2.32-39) This quote is MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s wish for the coming up night. They ambush Banquo and fail to kill Fleance. Macbeth starts getting paranoid and at the feast that night he sees BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost. Macbeth starts talking to the ghost, Then comes my fit again: I had else been perfect, Whole as the marble, founded as the rock, As broad and general as the casing air: But now I am cabinÃ¢â¬â¢d, cribbÃ¢â¬â¢d, confined, bound in To saucy doubts and fears.Ã¢â¬âBut BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s safe (3.4.22-27) Macbeth just found out that Fleance had not been killed. After this Macbeth was mentally done. He started going downhill. When got news that Lady Macbeth had killed herself it made him sink into a deep depart. Macbeth starts to fight until Macduff kills and beheads him. Malcolm, is now the King of Scotland. Macbeth has changed a lot over the course of this play. He was once a very loving and respected man but as you can see when you are not in the correct state of mind you can be talked into anything. Lady Macbeth did nothing but push him to his breaking point and when she killed herself if did nothing but hurt her husband. This all started because lady Macbeth wanted all the power over Scotland.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
This essay will explore the theme of masculinity as presented by Eddie and Rodolpho in Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play of a view from the bridge. I will do this by analysing what the male characters say, and how it shows their view of masculinity.Ã A View From The Bridge, which was based in New York, was set in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. During that time many Italian immigrants had fled to New York, and brought their beliefs and views with them. One of there strongest beliefs was in masculinity, which is what I will be exploring in this essay. A stereotypical Italian family had the Male as the head of the house, with him bringing in the money and have the ultimate say in all matters. That is only the stereotype though. Different people have different views, which are affected by class, culture and education amongst others. This is shown in the play by having people with different backgrounds, having different views.Ã Eddie is the character who seems to have the strongest views of masculinity. Firstly he shows the audience that he wants to protect his family. The first scenario when this comes across when he is having a conversation with Catherine about what she is wearing. Eddie tells her Ã¢â¬Å"I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s too short.Ã¢â¬ This is a typical parental concern for many years and still continues within families. It shows that Eddie cares about her and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want guys staring at her. To make the message even clearer he even tells Catherine Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like the looks.Ã¢â¬ Eddie is just looking out for his family and he wants the best for them. Shortly following this discussion is when Catherine tells Eddie she has got a job. At first he is inquisitive and asks her question like Ã¢â¬Å"whereÃ¢â¬â¢s the job?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"what company?Ã¢â¬ Once again this shows his protection for his family, but when he finds out she is earning Ã¢â¬Å"fifty dollars a weekÃ¢â¬ his tone changes. Suddenly Eddie becomes against the situation and makes excuses like he Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t like that neighbourhood.Ã¢â¬ I believe the reason Eddie had suddenly become against the situation is because he would no longer be the main provider for the family. It shows that CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s income would be more during the conversation with Marco when he says they could earn maybe Ã¢â¬Å"thirty, forty a week.Ã¢â¬ That is a massive dent to a proud manÃ¢â¬â¢s pride and masculinity. Another thing that proves Eddie to be a masculine man is when Arthur Miller writes about his Ã¢â¬ËrockerÃ¢â¬â¢. This is a rocking chair, which I believe may symbolise his throne. By having this in the story strengthens the fact that Eddie is head of the house.Ã Finally Eddie challenged Rodolpho to some Ã¢â¬ËfriendlyÃ¢â¬â¢ boxing. Boxing is a sport strongly associated with men due to its violence. Eddies skill at boxing is shown through Beatrice when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬â¢s goodÃ¢â¬ . This shows thatÃ Eddie has done it many times before, hence stregnthening his masculinity. Also by striking Rodolpho in the face is a warning to him, to not get on the wrong side of Eddie. Marco didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like this so he challenged Eddie to lift a chair with one hand. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do it. Then Marco lifted it and smiled Ã¢â¬Å"triumphantlyÃ¢â¬ showing Eddie he had won. This was the first time that EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s masculinity had been challenged.Ã Throughout the play Eddie also loses some of his masculinity through various event.Ã These first come though after the arrival of Marco and Rodolpho, when Beatrice says to him Ã¢â¬Å"when am I going to be a wife again,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s been 3 months.Ã¢â¬ That quote tells the audience that Eddie has not had sex for a long, which would greatly dent a male image, especially if your wife is confronting you about it. The next blow to his masculinity came when his daughter disobeyed him. Catherine tells him Ã¢â¬Å"no, were doing it right away.Ã¢â¬ This is in reference to Catherine and Rodolpho getting married. As head of the house he should be in control of all situations, and having your daughter not obey you is the opposite. It once again shows more masculinity Eddie has lost.Ã In EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s view of masculinity he shows us regularly that being gay is not acceptable. This is shown to the audience by constantly by him using homophobic comments about Rodolpho i.e. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s like a weirdÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"they callinÃ¢â¬â¢ him canary.Ã¢â¬ Even though he seems to have strong views against homosexuality he kisses Rodolpho. I believe he does this to challenge Rodolphos masculinity, but in doing so drastically reduces his masculine image.