Thursday, November 28, 2019

The implications of Dementia Essay Example For Students

The implications of Dementia Essay Dementia We will write a custom essay on The implications of Dementia specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The problem- The term Dementia is used loosely to depict a scope of marks and symptoms which involves the progressive diminution in a personals mental abilities ; it is an issue faced by around eight hundred thousand people in the United Kingdom entirely. The ‘umbrella term’ Dementia is a consequence of harm caused to the encephalon by specific diseases such as Alzheimer’s, or a injury within the encephalon ; this so consequences in an extraordinary decease of encephalon cells. Once these encephalon cells begin to decease they can non be replaced and hence the encephalon begins to shrivel. This is called Brain Atrophy ; this is a progressive and on-going consequence to the encephalon that can non, at this present clip, be cured. There are many different marks and symptoms of the oncoming of Dementia these include ; memory loss, freak out, trouble with perceptual experience, trouble with cognitive thought, alterations in behavior and many more. Although these are the typical ma rks and symptoms of Dementia, no two patients’ enduring from Dementia will expose this in the same ways. Dementia is most normally found in people over the age of 60 five old ages old ; as Dementia is difficult to diagnosis a GP may mention patients to a Dementia specializer ; such as a brain doctor who would run a series of trials to find if Dementia is a likely diagnosing. One trial used is the Mini-Mental State Examination ( MMSE ) which assesses a scope of mental capacities such as long and short term memory, linguistic communication accomplishments and concentration degrees. Blood trials may besides be run to except any different conditions that might demo Dementia symptoms but non necessary consequence in Dementia. Once other conditions are ruled out encephalon scans are taken, to do the official diagnosing of Dementia. There as several encephalon scans that can be used, such as ; a Computerised Tomography ( CT ) scan which can assist give elaborate images of the encephalon and demo more information of shots, encephalon harm and other diseases. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI ) scan can besides be used to corroborate Dementia and the specific type of Dementia the patient may hold ; as an MRI scan clearly shows harm to any blood vass plus any Brain Atrophy. Different types of Dementia can be diagnosed and can ensue in different methods of interventions and medicine. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of Dementia, doing 55 % of all Dementias. Alzheimer’s leads to steel cell decease and tissue loss and shrinks the encephalon dramatically. The cerebral mantle shrivels up damaging countries of the encephalon that affect thought, administration and memory. Besides ventricles within the encephalon Begin to turn larger and plaques- unnatural bunchs of proteins- signifier between the nervus cells ; while deceasing nervus cells contain tangles which are caused by distorted strands of other proteins. All of these consequences in loss of encephalon map and activity. Fig 1. –A healthy encephalon activity V Alzheimer’s sick person encephalon activity. hypertext transfer protocol: // Vascular Disease is the 2nd highest cause of Dementia ; caused by an break of blood supply to the encephalon. Any signifier of break of blood flow to the encephalon, either a leak or a obstruction can do a shot, which so in bend causes harm to the specific portion of the encephalon that was starved of blood. Although one big shot can do symptoms of Dementia, several smaller shots can besides bit by bit develop marks of Dementia in a patient. However, Vascular Disease can besides be cause by a disease called Small Vessel Disease. ; this is when damaged is caused to the little vass in the encephalon. Dementia with Lewy Bodies, is the cause of four per centum of Dementia’s and is closely linked to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases. Lewy Bodies are little parts of proteins that develop from inside nervus cells. They disrupt communicating, as they disturb the chemical messages that are sent between nervus cells. Lewy Bodies can impact any portion of the encephalon and are known to do hallucinations, deficiency of concentration and a diminution in physical abilities, likewise to those who suffer with Parkinson’s disease. .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd , .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .postImageUrl , .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd , .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd:hover , .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd:visited , .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd:active { border:0!important; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd:active , .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2eb0e1928e71ebba12aca1a4ee1dc8bd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: THE FUTURE OF PUBLISHING EssayImplications- Deductions of Dementia chiefly include, fiscal, emotional and societal. Dementia costs ?26.3 million a twelvemonth ; that means that over ?30,000 a twelvemonth goes towards caring for an single patient ( as shown in figure two ) . Even though this big sum of money goes to each patient merely ?90 of it goes towards research, to enable farther apprehension of Dementia and its related diseases. This is needed in order to handle and better quality of life for patients with Dementia, intending that although research is being done it is non being funded significantly. Therefore these costs will go on to be a strong deduction of Dementia. In most instances two tierces of the costs fall on the patient or onto their loved 1s. Families tend to hold to offer non merely societal and emotional support but besides finicky support. Close relations such as partners or kids frequently become carers for their suffering household member ; burthening them with going full clip carers frequently around a full clip occupation and household. These people are unpaid, unaided and decidedly overworked. Research in 2013, by the Alzheimer’s Society ( Shown in figure three ) demoing it was worked out that 1,3,40,000,000 hours were spent looking after people with dementedness, this clearly shows the monolithic affect Dementia has on people’s lives. hypertext transfer protocol: // Although, the fiscal loads must be noted, the greater deduction of a diagnosing of Dementia is the societal and emotional effects on the patient and their loved 1s. However, the strain on attention places and NHS wards get bying with patients with Dementia is great ; normally due to miss of staffing when these patients frequently need one on one attention. Many NHS trusts have attempted to foreground the immense effects of Dementia on life styles. Guy’s and Thomas’ NHS Trust foundation did this successfully through a series of six short movies called ‘Barbara, the whole story’ this follows an aged adult female acquiring diagnosed with Dementia, and show’s her agony from the symptoms. As the movie is done through her eyes, it is really affectional and inquiries the spectator on their personal behaviors towards those with Dementia and besides highlights the utmost hardships the patient and their households endure. This picture was shown to all staff at Guy’s and Thomas’ NHS Trust and have had a batch of positive responses to this from staff members: â€Å"Barbara’s Story is a powerful reminder of merely how of import everyone’s part is when it comes to making a safe and positive environment.† said one staff member. This picture has successfully highlighted the societal and emotional deductions of Dementia for the patient, household and care/ medical staff. Fig. 4- Barbara’s Story explained on the Trust web site. hypertext transfer protocol: // Possible Solutions- There is no existent solution for Dementia, nevertheless there are exclusions to the regulation ; Dementia caused by vitamin and thyroid endocrine lacks. This can be corrected by addendums. Besides some Dementia’s caused by tumors or head hurt can be treated and corrected surgically, successfully halting marks of Dementia. Research has shown that although there is no remedy, bar of farther harm to the encephalon is advised. This means that the hazards factors should be controlled, these include ; high blood force per unit area, high cholesterin, smoke, diet and exercising and besides sing Diabetes, type one, is controlled. In order to forestall farther harm there are several medicines used that have shown to impact different phases of Dementia. Not all patients enduring with Dementia will have medicine as it depends on the badness and type of Dementia they are enduring with. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, is a medicine used to handle mild/ moderate Alzheimer’s, every bit good Lewy Bodies Dementia. It is a chemical that prevents the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from interrupting down acetylcholine, which increases both the degree and continuance of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The function of acetylcholine in knowledge in the cardinal nervous system is to command memory and acquisition. This means that the symptoms of memory loss and deficiency of apprehension is reduced. This medicine is proven to besides be good at commanding hallucinations, and is used for patients with Parkinson’s every bit good as Dementia. Side effects include sickness and emesis but this is normally impermanent for the first few hebdomads. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can besides decelerate a patient’s bosom rate, so this would necessitate to be monitored. .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba , .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .postImageUrl , .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba , .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba:hover , .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba:visited , .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba:active { border:0!important; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba:active , .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uea76efd67b60787ff4a26d32f4f7eeba:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Edies life EssayAnother drug used in intervention of Alzheimer is Memantine hydrochloride. It was foremost produced in 1968 and is still seen as the most consequence intervention of moderate to function Alzheimer’s. This medicine blocks the effects of chemicals in the encephalon. One common symptom of Dementia is depression, as patients frequently feel entirely and scared. Therefore antidepressants are frequently prescribed as a method of intervention for this symptom. Another common symptom is a alteration in behavior. Therefore, major tranquilizers are sometimes used to assist command a patient with Dementia’s ; aggressive or disputing behavior. However major tranquilizers should merely be used short term and with careful consideration ; due to inauspicious side effects ; such as deterioration of other Dementia symptoms and cardiovascular diseases. Psychological methods of intervention are effectual with assisting patients and carers manage the symptoms of Dementia ; unluckily it does non decelerate down the patterned advance of Dementia. These methods focus on cognitive stimulations advancing encephalon activity, memory, job resolution and communicating. These vary from group activities and games, the Alzheimer’s Society offers ‘Singing for the brain’ within communities ( as shown in figure five ) ; where people with Dementia and their carers go to develop societal accomplishments, memory and to give them something to maintain them active and positive. Although there is no ‘solution’ for Dementia ; one of import bar and assistance to assisting those with Dementia is attention and support. As antecedently mentioned households and carers are put on greatly to socially, emotionally, physically and finically back up their loved 1. However, this love, support and attention can do the ultimate difference to how a individual copes with Dementia, particularly in the late phases when it is frequently alone and most confusing and terrorization. Fig. 5- A group at ‘Singing for the Brain’ hypertext transfer protocol: // Evaluation- Several medicines have found to cut down the symptoms of Dementia in its assorted phases of badness. However, no remedy or solution has yet been found and although the drugs are effectual they still have some major side effects. Such as Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, that in utmost fortunes can do bradycardia in patients. Whereas, other interventions such as major tranquilizers used to command a patients behavior can hold inauspicious side effects such as declining other symptoms of Dementia and can do cardiovascular diseases. This shows that even though this drugs are effectual in commanding some symptoms of Dementia, the side effects can be highly damaging to the patients overall well-being. Dementia inflicts fiscal battles on the NHS and for persons and households enduring with Dementia ; nevertheless non adequate money is traveling towards research into Dementia, this is an country that needs to be addressed. From research, I have found The Alzheimer’s Society offers a huge sum of information and support to those with Dementia and their households and carers ; every bit good as offering advice for wellness attention professionals. It is clear to see that the chief intervention that can be given to those with Dementia is love, attention and support. Brodie Smart Word Count: 1,858 Bibliography of Internet Resources: hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // pg=headct hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // documentID=100 hypertext transfer protocol: // encephalon movie hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // -cost hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // v=DtA2sMAjU_Y hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // documentID=102 hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // Brodie Smart

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Ed Gein

For my Psychology portfolio I chose to present the movie Ed Gein. This movie is a psychological thriller based on the life of America’s first famous serial killer. Ed Gein, a reclusive farmer who was convicted for necrophila, cannibalism, and murder is a unique story. The fact that Ed Gein’s below average childhood evolved a deranged murderer declared criminally insane was very interesting. After watching Ed Gein I was propelled to understand the psychosis behind this man and his true story. Born at the turn of the century into the small farming community of Plainfield, Wisconsin, Gein lived a repressive and solitary life on the family homestead with a weak, ineffectual older brother and domineering mother who taught him from an early age that sex, women, and anything impure was a sinful thing abominable to God. One time when Augusta, his mother, viciously beat him with a belt because he was caught masturbating. Despite tongue-lashings and the overt physical abuse, Gein adored his mother. He called her a devout Christian woman and a saint. He had little adoration for his father who was unattached, verbally abusive man to the entire family. Shortly after the death of his father, Gein killed his brother out of rage and utter disgust when he called their mother a brute hag. His mother died unknowing of this fact one year later. She left her son a thirty-nine-year-old bachelor, still emotionally enslaved to the tyranny his parents contributed to his life. Ed ran the family's 160-acre farm by himself. He was alone for the first time. Physically speaking, Gein was an average man with a regular build, brown hair and light eyes. He was simply seen as a shy, harmless and eccentric farmer. Some residents considered him â€Å"safe† enough to baby-sit their kids. However, he still missed his family and in his solitude, Gein began to withdraw from reality. Cognition was adequate and working in this man. He had the ability to ... Free Essays on Ed Gein Free Essays on Ed Gein For my Psychology portfolio I chose to present the movie Ed Gein. This movie is a psychological thriller based on the life of America’s first famous serial killer. Ed Gein, a reclusive farmer who was convicted for necrophila, cannibalism, and murder is a unique story. The fact that Ed Gein’s below average childhood evolved a deranged murderer declared criminally insane was very interesting. After watching Ed Gein I was propelled to understand the psychosis behind this man and his true story. Born at the turn of the century into the small farming community of Plainfield, Wisconsin, Gein lived a repressive and solitary life on the family homestead with a weak, ineffectual older brother and domineering mother who taught him from an early age that sex, women, and anything impure was a sinful thing abominable to God. One time when Augusta, his mother, viciously beat him with a belt because he was caught masturbating. Despite tongue-lashings and the overt physical abuse, Gein adored his mother. He called her a devout Christian woman and a saint. He had little adoration for his father who was unattached, verbally abusive man to the entire family. Shortly after the death of his father, Gein killed his brother out of rage and utter disgust when he called their mother a brute hag. His mother died unknowing of this fact one year later. She left her son a thirty-nine-year-old bachelor, still emotionally enslaved to the tyranny his parents contributed to his life. Ed ran the family's 160-acre farm by himself. He was alone for the first time. Physically speaking, Gein was an average man with a regular build, brown hair and light eyes. He was simply seen as a shy, harmless and eccentric farmer. Some residents considered him â€Å"safe† enough to baby-sit their kids. However, he still missed his family and in his solitude, Gein began to withdraw from reality. Cognition was adequate and working in this man. He had the ability to ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

People, Profit and Price Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

People, Profit and Price - Essay Example Q2: What do you mean by income elasticity? Identify the symbolic form of income elasticity. Income elasticity of demand refers to the reaction of demand to change in consumers' income. In other words, it is the extent of change in demand to a change in consumers' income. Income elasticity of demand is calculated by the ratio of percentage change in demand to income (Anon., 2005, p.22). According to Anon (2005, p.22) it is represented as: Income Elasticity of Demand = In symbolic form, eY=  Where eY =Income elasticity of demand; Y =income of consumer, Q=quantity demand, Y=proportionate change in income Q: 3 what is mean by production function? What is the use of production function in production analysis? The production function refers to a technological relationship between input and output (Anon., 2005, p.50).It indicates the output of a business, industry, or economy for the input. When it comes to the use of production function in production analysis, assume a firm that uses N amount of inputs, such as, machinery, labor, and materials, for producing a single output. Production function (q=f(x)) is used to summarize the technological possibilities of that firm. Here, q represents the output and x=(x1, x2†¦xn)' is an N?1 vector of inputs (Coelli, Prasada, Christopher and George, 2005, p.12). Q: 4 what are the characteristic features of free market economics? How are the central problems of resource allocation solved in such economic? Characteristics of free market economy include: consumers, producers, private owners, and government are primary actors, three actors (consumer, producer, property owners) are driven by self-interest while government is driven by social welfare, all factors of production are the property of private owners, owners have the right to buy and sell through market mechanism, competition exists when there is freedom to allocate resources. Decision making is decentralized since individual economic actors are free to allocate th eir resources. Resource allocation is defined by individual economic agents. Economic actors pursue their interest but resource allocation is in interest of society (Anderton, 2006, p.22). Q: 5 explain the term â€Å"economic costs†? How do these differ from accounting costs? Use examples to illustrate your answer The economic cost (EC) is greater than the accounting cost (AC) because EC includes both explicit accounting cost and implicit cost which is the value of owner's personal resources.EC incorporates implicit costs that could have been gained when same resources are invested somewhere else. If a couple decides to invest $100,000 on building for opening a restaurant. Implicit costs would be 3 percent or $3,000 or the money earned from some other investment. It is because of different rate of return in mutual funds (9 percent) and capital investment (6 percent) on $100,000(Musgrave and Elia, 2001). Task: 2 Explain the causes of market failure. Should market failure alway s invite government intervention? Discuss the different ways in which government intervene in the market. Give example in support of your answer? Introduction "Market failure is a blanket term used by economists to describe situations in which markets might not work and/or markets might

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Is pricing promotion the most efficient online shopping market Essay

Is pricing promotion the most efficient online shopping market strategy to attract Chinese college students - Essay Example keting idea 21 Chapter#3: Methodology 22 3.1. Research Philosophy 22 3.2. Research methods 22 3.3. Research design 23 3.3.1. Purpose 23 3.3.2. Research option 23 3.4. Research Strategy 23 3.5. Time Horizon 24 3.6. Design of Sample 24 3.7. The process of research techniques 25 3.7.1. The collection of primary statistic 25 Questionnaire 25 The Interview 25 3.8. Ethical Considerations 26 3.8.1. The research process is affected by Ethical issues generally 26 3.8.2. Ethical issues during design the questionnaire 26 3.8.3. Ethical issues in the process of data collection 26 3.8.4. Ethical issues connected with the emphasis and analysis 27 3.9. Limitation of the research 27 Chapter#4: Analysis of questionnaire 28 Analysis of students choose online shopping 28 The analysis of students' online shopping expansion 28 The types of goods characteristics of online shopping 29 Criteria characteristics of college students’ online shopping 29 Students choose online shopping w ebsite analysis 30 Analysis of problems encountered by students online shopping 30 College students think online shopping insufficient analysis 30 Analysis of characters of issues needs to be perfect 31 Analysis of College students’ the prospection towards online shopping 31 Analysis towards Other factors 31 The interview to stuff of TaoBao 32 The standardization of website’s specialized products and information 32 To maintain the level of moderately priced 33 Establishment of regional storage center 33 Accurate and efficient promotional strategy 33 Improvement of after-sales service 34 Seriously deal with complaints 34 Problem of college students shopping online 35 Business credit is low 35 The problem of security 35 Legal system for online shopping is not perfect 36 Logistics service of net purchases is poor 36 Students’ consciousness of rights safeguard is weak 36 After-sales service of net purchases cannot be achieved 36 Countermeasures to enhance college st udents online shopping 37 Students should strengthen self-protection awareness 37 Industry self-regulation 37 Improvement of network technology 37 Enhance the integrity of online shopping 38 Enhance network security of the enterprise 38 Simplify the refund process 38 Improving the safety factor in the payment process 38 Develop specialized e-commerce law and legal system for online shopping 39 Government’s support 39 Strengthen macro-control and management of the online shopping market 39 Speed up the construction of information infrastructure 39 Improve the express online shops’ logistics service level 40 Introduction of the "logistics insurance 40 Chapter# 5: Conclusion 41 5.1. Study’s conclusion 41 5.2. The Limitation of this research 42 5.3. The direction of further study 43 6. References 44 Abstract This paper introduces Fujian University students for the survey and interviews stuffs from the biggest online shopping website in China-TaoBao, conducted a stud y to analyze college students online shopping situation. The study found that although the online shopping phenomenon is quite common among college students, especially penetration rate of boys online shopping is higher, but the integrity of the online shopping merchants, payment security, imperfect laws and problems of regulations towards online shopping restrict the development of e-commerce network. Because of

Monday, November 18, 2019

European Court on Human Rights Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

European Court on Human Rights - Essay Example The Human Rights Watch (HRW), a global NGO, noted this weakness in implementation of human rights laws. "The development of norms has not been matched by effective means for their implementation." (Hicks, 2007) Implementation is further blocked by the current thinking that protection worldwide, and the threat to human rights continues to grow." (Hicks, 2007) Amnesty International also believes that today, "human rights are not only a promise unfulfilled, they are a promise betrayed." Amnesty International was referring specifically to attempts by various States to justify or conceal their violations of the absolute ban on torture, to the tragedy of Darfur, the failure to stop extreme and widespread violence against women, and the failure to pursue the people's economic, political and social rights (as embodied in the modest UN Millenium Development Goals). In the face of such serious challenges, the Human Rights Watch (HRW) called for UN Member States to rise and assume the role of human rights defenders. Not the US, since HRW believes that the US has compromised itself by human rights violations in its campaign against terrorism and in the war in Iraq (for instance, secret prison camps and ill-treatment and torture of prisoners). Also not Russia or China, since as HRW pointed out, the two countries are themselves major human rights violators, especially the rights of political dissenters. The Human Rights Watch urged the European Union to assume the role since it is "the world's leading collection of democracies, founded on a ECHR 4 commitment to human rights and the rule of law." At the same time HRW chided the EU, stating that "due in part to structural problems and in part to a lack of political will, the European Union's underperformance on human rights has left a gaping leadership hole." (Roth, 2007) EU: Waffling on Human Rights Issues The EU has made undeniable progress in setting up a European human rights system. Its Charter of Fundamental Rights, adopted in 2002, has defined the comprehensive civil, political, economic and social rights of all European citizens and residents, covering the following concerns: dignity, freedoms, equality, solidarity, citizens rights and justice. (Europa) "Human rights, democracy and the rule of law are core values of the European Union. Embedded in its founding treaty, they have been reinforced by the adoption of a Charter of Fundamental Rights. Respect for human rights is a prerequisite for countries seeking to join the Union and a precondition for countries who have concluded trade and other agreements with it." (European Parliament) The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) is empowered to hear cases filed by individuals who believe that their rights were violated

Friday, November 15, 2019

Study On The Deprivation Trap Religion Essay

Study On The Deprivation Trap Religion Essay The government of South Africa has called in an expert in community development to assist a group of individuals who have created an NGO (Non- governmental organization) to help deal with the alien landing that has happened 20 years ago. The humans salvage the aliens and put them in a restricted zone on the outskirts of the city called District 9. In the beginning the MNU (multinational united), a multinational cooperation was in charge and was recently disbanded from service because the company ill-treating the alien group. It is the experts job to help the NGO better manage the aliens and treat them the way a typical community in South Africa would be treated, as many say that the very fact that they have traveled here means this particular species (or synthetic intelligence) is so far beyond us. The idea that the human race regards them, as low-grade life forms is not quite realistic. In summary, the main aim of the MNU was around the forced relocation of the aliens from District 9 to District 10, moving the aliens even further outside the outskirts of South Africa. Besides being constricted to the township and being forcibly relocated, they suffer various other kinds of oppression by MNU, very closely to the way blacks were treated during the time of apartheid, making the aliens fearful and unable to trust the human race further. According to Flora and Flora (1993) Community development unites the knowledge of community with development. Community being a group of people who share common characteristics, identity, Interests and perceived itself as separate in some regard from the larger society it exists. For this reason, community development depends on interaction between people and combined action, rather than individual activity. Cavaye (2000) added that putting the two terms together community development means that a community itself participates in a procedure intended to recover the social, economic and environmental situation of the community. While on the other hand development is the process of choice, different ways of thinking, anticipate change and try to improve quality of life for those living in the community. 2. The deprivation trap The concept of the deprivation trap (Refer to the Appendix) shows clusters of groups of deficiency that interact with each other (pentagon of interactive links between each) to form the trap the people find themselves in and trying to survive it. This traps framework consists of the following: Powerlessness, this purely means someone who does not have any power, who is helpless as they are lacking the necessary legal authority. People who fall in this heading are fearful to express their needs and are trying to hold on to what little they have without having that taken away from them, Heywood (2007) In short stated it is the lack of social and economical influence. The aliens are stranded in South Africa, as they are unable to find the necessary object needed to start their ship to take them back home. Therefore not only are they in a foreign place with no knowledge of the customs they are also unable to help themselves because they do not have the necessary resources. The humans therefore take advantage of this by forcing them to relocate to district 10 without giving them notice before hand. If the human did not like the answer, the aliens gave to their questions they would shout and threaten to shoot them and in some instances gloat at them. Isolation, people who live in remote, inaccessible, secluded and quarantined areas, where assess to health care facilities, job opportunities, clean water, security, education etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ is either out-of-the-way, scarce or in some cases non-existent. Therefore, their geographical area secluded them from the rest of civilization, where help is not easier to come across. There is a special section of Johannesburg that frosted the aliens (district 9), this keeps them away from the human civilizations; the humans do prefer it this way. An individual from the community says, They must fix the ship and go. Another state at least they kept away from us Poverty, Swanepoel and de Beer (2011) in short stated that poverty can roughly be seen as the lack of having necessary land, assets, jobs, money, skills etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ to be able to function properly to meet abstract (e.g. Human dignity), concrete (e.g. Clean Water) and most importantly basic needs (e.g. food) needs to function in society healthy both financially and mentally. They do not have money, human education, resources therefore they are taken advantage off and are treated like animals (served cat food as meals). Physical Weakness, a person is in a state of being weak; therefore, they do not have any physical strength to improve their lives. In some cases chronic illnesses are contracted which affect physical weakness even more. They are placed in an area that is not hygienic, there are piles of litter everywhere, they urinate in the opened, there are meat chopping in the middle of the road, over all the area looks like the slums. Therefore, they are not physically strong or have the energy to do anything about it. The only proper source of food that they could possibly purchase is cat food, if they are unable to afford that which are given in exchange for the aliens advance weapons, they have to eat the pile of dirty leftover food Vulnerability, this is where a person has limited choice and engagement, which makes them easy candidates to be intimidated, and taken advantage off. Since they had no power, and are living in poverty and isolation this makes the aliens vulnerable, Humans knowing this used ways of manipulations to get the aliens to do what they needed, they bribed with cat food and other occasions threatened to take way their children if they did not cooperate with what they wanted. In other cases, we see that they destroy the aliens eggs, which they call abortion. The deprivation trap is an interconnected trap, the only way a CDW (Community developer worker) can break the hold the trap has over the people is, according to Swanepoel and de Beer (2011) is to figuratively break the links in the chain and then the trap shall be broken or at least loosen that hold. With the above information, it is clear to see how easy it was for the humans to coerce the aliens into doing as they please. 3. Ethical and practical principles 3.1 Ethical Principles Van Heerden (2005) states that ethics is a set of rules or a standard that regulates the lives of people and are used to make decisions in some instances. Each individual have their own personal ethics and this helps them determine the rightness and wrongness of things. Swanepoel and de Beer (2011) mentioned six districted ethical principles that every community developer should consider when going into a community: 3.1.1. Human Orientation People who have fallen into the deprivation trap have not been successful in meeting their daily basic needs, therefore a CDW should help enable the community to live fulfilling life with all their needs met. The most important abstract need is human dignity; this is where they are aware that they are able to make decisions for themselves making them feel self-relevant and self-efficient. As they meet their internal potential, it motivates the community to fulfill their physical needs Human dignity according to Kleyn and Viljeon (2010) is one of the essential needs for individuals. Looking at the way the aliens where treated its clear that their human dignity has not been met. They aliens where unable to reach their full potential as the humans restricted their movements, this discouraging them even further. They where also treated as barbarians, given names such as prawn, constantly being swore at and treated as punching bags and humiliation around every corner, they are also shown publically urinating, savagely ripping meat apart, and fighting with each other constantly. 3.1.2. Participation When the community participate they become part of the decision making and planning process, which on return makes them feel empowered and in control of their surroundings. The humans avoided at all cost getting the aliens to be involved in maintaining the environment and having some say about their circumstances, thus encouraging the submissiveness of the aliens. 3.1.3. Empowerment Simply stated by Heywood (2007) empowerment refers to the political power, not having the necessary skills to complete a task but instead have power to make decisions. The aliens had no power in any circumstance, they where always watching their back and worried about a human encounter. When a human approached they had to go down on their needs to show that the humans had the authority, they where always being belittled and mocked and if they showed a sign of emancipation they where gun downed. 3.1.4. Ownership This helps people gain power to make decisions in their own life. According to Swanepoel and de Beer (2011), they mentioned that it is the persons own future and development no one else, as they are the main role- players. Mobilization is used to help trigger the people and allow them to take responsibilities of ownership and management in their future and future projects. Mobilization was not implemented at any point in the handling of the aliens. Humans preferred that they took the ownership away from the aliens so that they could be in charge of the alien community at all time, giving the humans a sense of authority. 3.1.5. Release The real goal of developmental projects is eliminate poverty, not to address poverty or deal with some of its manifestations of poverty. Therefore trying to release the hold the deprivation trap has on the community. They try to gradually improve the communities situation, as a result releasing them from poverty not relieving. As stated on the top, the goal of release is to try and rid the community from poverty, by the looks of the way MNU maintained district 9 it seems as if they where trying to keep the aliens in poverty. They did not try to produce means of improving their living circumstance, such as providing education so the aliens can learn necessary skills to help themselves. Instead, they left them living in slum-like living condition. 3.1.6. Sustainability If the natural environment is under threat or damaged, then individuals who are integrated part of the environment will also be under threat or in harm. Healthier natural environment means a gradual improvement of the communitys health. The aliens living condition proves the top true. The environment in which the aliens lived was constantly threating their ability to survive. It was rubbish dumb with aliens urinating everywhere, meat being cut in the opened, alien tug-of-war happening in the middle of the road, aliens fights, aliens vomiting in the opened etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ 3.2 Practical Principles Swanepoel and de Beer (2011) mentioned four districted practical principles that every community developer should consider when going into a community. These practical principles need to be pursued and regarded in order to carry out the ethical principles (mentioned above): 3.2.1. Learning The learning process has an aim to meet needs for an adaptable, continuous, investigational, action-based and assistance. This helps the Community and the CDW to exchange knowledge and resources. Van Heerden (2005), states that people can lead their own change processes of learning, because of some of the success stories that she have taken note off. The main aim is to emphasis autonomy as the community is very capable to make their own decisions, as this would also give them a sense of empowerment. Firstly, MNU provided no learning opportunity for the aliens thus not giving them an opportunity to try to make a difference in their community and the human one. They had no autonomy or empowerment so they where unable to be adaptable and make decisions in their own lives. Secondly there was no CDWs or projects implements in attempts to help better their stay and encourage knowledge building in district 9 for the aliens. 3.2.2. Compassion CDW should pursue being able to be sympathetic or empathetic, this is especially useful when the community is in that deprivation trap and have lost hope. Baron, Branscombe and byrne (2009) states that Compassion helps them build trust, gain friendships and co-operation with the community members. Considering the other particle principle discussed it is accurate to say that compassion was one of the main practical principle that MNU fell short off. There was no compassion was so ever shown to the aliens, the aliens where constantly being called derogatory names, blasphemed, threatened usually for no reason, being captured, their baby eggs being burned, Nigerians kill and eat the aliens, the aliens held at gun point or being shot at from the sky. These principles are undeniably essential to make community development works as it works on freeing the people from the deprivation trap. 3.3 Conflict Van Heerden (2005) wrote that conflict is when two or more values, perspectives and options are contradictory in nature and have not been aligned or agreed about yet. The main reason conflict arises is by miscommunication, meaning messages that have been carried across wrongly. Since communication arises from miscommunication, the way to overcome it is by good communication. There are varies causes of conflict that Mersham and Skinner (2009) mentioned such as unclear boundaries which are definitions not being understood clearly, Clashing interests and personalities, situation, consensus needed, misunderstanding and unresolved prior conflict with the receiver. Cavaye (2004) went on saying that values are another reason why conflict arises. Community values are diverse and inherently involve conflict. Community members maintain very unusual values based on their own experience and background. The expression of values involves managing conflicting views and community power. There was definitely a communication barrier that arise between the humans and the aliens, which did in fact cause conflict which lead to hundred of aliens being killed. 3.4. Rights violation Each individual on this planet when born is entitled to rights. According to Kleyn and Viljoen (2010) rights are the core to humanity and is therefore inviolable, no one can take these rights away, people are born with them. Human rights are the formulation of the requisite for fairness, acceptance, mutual respect, and human dignity in all endeavors. Grech (2006) states ones human rights are not granted by the state and instead is an innate quality that each human been is granted when they are born. When it came to the handling of the aliens there where regrettably numerous areas of the rights that where violated, for instance the right that was most violated was the right of human dignity, this is according to Kleyn and Viljoen (2010) is having respect for the individual and regarding their self-respect. The aliens where treated with no respect, the humans manipulated them on many occasions and demoted them as individuals, there was even a derogatory names for them called Prawns, referring to them as bottom feeders and those who scavenge the leftovers and made the aliens basic food supply being cat food. Other right that where violated was the right to life, as the humans killed the aliens without second guessing and in one instance burned a house of eggs that was soon to hatch with baby aliens. The right to privacy, the aliens had the right to do as they please in their homes but the humans rampaged in their houses and accusing them of unnecessary allegations. The right of fre edom of movement which was demolished when the aliens where restricted and detained to living only in district 9 and where not allowed to move from that area or they would be killed. The right to nationality and a free and fair world, meaning everyone has the right to be a certain colour, gender, age etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the aliens where alienated because they where a different nationality from what the average human race is used to therefore being treated as felons and excluded from civilization. There was no free or fair treatment taken into consideration toward them. The right to food, shelter, and education, shelter was provided but not sufficient or safe enough. Food supply was only cat food, which is only appropriate for cats. In addition, education at no point in time was offered to help teach the aliens about the human customs. The right to live free, the humans killed the aliens without hesitation and made some of them into experimental lab rats. Freedom of expression, if the aliens Questioned the human authority they where held at gunpoint or manipulated in to giving in. The violation of rights leads to suffering and devastation which most of the time arises from conflict ( discussed in the previous section), in some cases it can cause physical and psychological harm and in the instance of the aliens political oppression of discrimination arise which made their basic needs easier to deny. Maises (2003) states war crimes as the laws of armed conflict forbid acts of hostility on people in a community and the use of firepower that triggers unnecessary suffering or long-term environmental damage, exactly what happened with the aliens in district 9. Lastly, genocide was is also an issue that arises especially with the aliens, when the humans coldly burnt the aliens baby eggs. 5. Recommendation for better handling of the aliens. It was clear that MNU handling of the aliens were cruel, vicious, brutal, merciless and appalling which made the aliens untrusting, fearful and skeptical of the humans. The new NGO group is trying to overcome this circumstance and make the planet livable for all. By doing this, the following recommendations should be taken into consideration: 5.1. The organization as an enabler of community development The main goal of any Community developer is to make the community enablers and an enabling environment. This simply means that it enables the community to adapt to the ever-changing environment that they live in. The aliens where unable to be involved in development previously, so it is essential that a CDW gets the aliens to be involved in community work, this contributes to helping them feel welcome and at the same time facilitating confidence building within. 5.2. The local development environment The local environment helps CDW become aware of the global context, as the existing situation being the environment is fundamentally valuable. By knowing these environments, it helps aid towards support and strengthens it. These environments also play a key role in communication, also being one of the fundamental aspects of an enabling community and improvement of the community. The following are the different environment that would be useful to the alien community we have: Social Environment, Baron, Branscombe and Byrne (2009) notes that this environment consists of bodies such as families, churches, clubs or formal institutions such as friendships. All communities are organized differently and a CDW should consider those when entering one. Some of the negative factors in this area could be power struggle, different group formations and crime. By understanding the way the aliens gather and group to form entitles it would make the CDW able to better communicate and make the necessary change that is needed. The social environment is very important and should be stable so that adaptation is successful to eradicate the negative aspects. Cultural Environment, this consists of societys values, morals and the person tradition. It is essential that a CDW creates an environment where the individuals space is true to the values they where brought up in. Cavaye (2004) states that values regulate progress significances. Additionally by understanding these traditions, it forms a framework of understanding the reasons behind the way people act and react to actual life. The aliens have come from a different cultural background therefore the CDW should broaden their knowledge on the aliens culture so that the aliens can feel part of a bigger picture. It is also important for the aliens to understand the South African culture if they would like to reside on the planet comfortably. Psychological Environment, every persons experience to life would be different from each other. Willian and Sheffe (1989) writes that abstract manifestation of their experience of reality is know as the psychological make-up of people. The negative aspects could be stress, psychological scars, fear, and feeling of rejection, lack of self-esteem and empowerment and apathy from outside community. Due to the unfortunate circumstance that the aliens had to deal with during MNU rein, which left the aliens scared, battered and fearful of any future endeavors. It is important that the CDW beings working on those abstract feeling so that trust can once again be integrated in their lives, which will motivate them into helping create a better future for themselves and the community alike. 5.3. Community as the main actor According to the Oxford study dictionary (2002) defines Community as a body of people living in a distinct place considered as a whole, they have common interests and values. According to the definition, it is easy to say that the community should be the main-role players as they have the expert community knowledge about their specific area they live in. The aliens where treated submissively since their arrival 20 years ago, therefore by creating a space where they feel they are in charge can bring some of their confidence back. It can also help the humans gain trust from the aliens and finally help the aliens to have some authority in terms of the living conditions they preferred, this would to help make them feel comfortable, as they are far away from their home. 5.4. Communication and Motivation Communication is a very intricate process that is unpredictable because different people use different codes of communication, hence why there can be barriers of communication that can arise. Swanepoel and de Beer (2011) mentioned some barriers that can arise is the receiver ( The target person) might be afraid of the sender (where the message originated), receiver may have expectations, the receiver at the moment may be preoccupied, there could be a physical disability, environmental interruptions If communication was done from the beginning, there would have never been that conflict between the aliens and the humans. Communication would have created understanding on both parts and thus interventions could have been installed to help sort out the novelty that has arise. Communication would of also made the human community a bit more open minded to the arrival of the aliens, therefore CDW aim should be to communicate effectively so that both side without a doubt understand each other till the very end. Motivation, communication is implemented for various reasons, one of those reasons are to motivate people. Van Heerden (2005) said that motivation could contain hope and a positive outlook on life, being enthusiastic and keen and help change the communities attitude in a progressive way. In summary motivation can lead a person to change their mindset in a positive and innovating way such as feeling a sense of triumph, being entrusted with responsibilities and achieving them. It is noted that due to the harsh after effects of MNU the aliens have lost all hope in the human race. It is the CDW job to try to change their perception about the human race, hence why motivation is the best tool for this instance. Motivation in all occasions in the aliens life can help push the aliens to start getting smart and adapt to the South African environment, and with the efforts from the aliens would push the humans to become more productive in trying to understand and fully accepting the aliens. 5.5. Goals of contact making The main goals are to get to know the people and being accepted in and analyze exactly what the community needs. Getting to know the people is all about understanding the circumstance of each person. The needs are what the individual want introduced to better their circumstances e.g. schools for the children. The needs of the aliens are to be accepted unconditionally and to live a normal life free to pursue their human rights and meet their basic needs on a regular basis. By making this possible, they shall gain a sense of empowerment that will help motivate them for further development in their lives and in the community. 5.6. Outcomes of community development Most CDW fail in their attempt to help develop the community, mainly because they are approaching the approach wrong. There are couple of positive attributes that needs to be followed to create a positive outcome for the community as stated by Swanepoel and de Beer (2011): Awareness creation, this approach is used to help the community become aware of their surrounds and therefore understanding it better. When the aliens becomes aware of themselves in terms of the environment, needs, resources etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ there are able to make some changes to their situation, and with that gaining knowledge. Further development, by becoming aware the community is able to recognize what needs to be done, therefore goals are set, some are reached, and therefore further development can be done When the Aliens become aware and are able to further develop they are able to fulfill abstract needs and gain confidence and optimism to approach new horizons. Demonstration effect, successes in certain places have influence on other areas and outside observes to participate in leading a hand. By a community accepting the aliens and attempting to bond with them, other would follow in their steps, according to Baron, Branscombe and Byrne (2009) this know as social influence. Community Building not only does the concept of community development aid in strengthening a community but is also helps support abstract and concrete needs and help them become more aware, creating dignity in which they can be self-sufficient and self-relevant. This helps the aliens become more involved and for that reason can teach them skills such as being adaptable, organized and becoming their own community developers. 5.7. Education and human rights As discussed in Part 1 by assigning human rights to the aliens and living up to those promises it would help the handling of the aliens become easier and developmental run smoothly. Rights are important as it provides the framework of security, which would give the aliens piece of mind knowing they have their rights to fall back on so a repeat of MNUs behaviors shall not be impose on them again. Education is also on of those very essential aspects of growth in any community. By educating, the aliens they will be better able to function in the community thus reduce their fighting among each other, their disempowerment and submissiveness, their demotivation, and lack of survival skills. With the correct education there are able to find jobs, better looks after their family, homes and better handle the community and the human race. Education can be seen as their green card into living and making it on planet earth. 6. Conclusion It was clear that MNU approached the whole situation wrongly from the beginning, not only did they violate the rights of the aliens, but they also did not attempt to effectively communicate and implement a peaceful society for all. Society was quick to judge and isolate those that where slightly different without attempting to make means to understand the aliens better. The aliens have arrived in a new planet many are unsure whether it was planned or not but it has happened so if positive interventions are laid out it shall be a interesting challenge to combine the alien and human races. This time using effective method to get the aliens educated and to get the human informed so that better communication is done and there will be no repeat of MNUs behavior. The real voyage of discovery consists not of seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes. Marcel Proust

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Fundamentalist Christians and Negative Conceptions of Dungeons & Dragons :: Christianity Religion Essays

Fundamentalist Christians and Negative Conceptions of Dungeons & Dragons This paper is an attempt to explain the negative conceptions about role-playing games, especially claims that the games are Satanic. I will be using many primary sources from the Internet, most of which are from Christian websites, to determine precisely what is being claimed about the games. I will be using more academic sources in order to try to explain where the claims are coming from. As the websites primarily focus on Dungeons & Dragons (henceforth noted as D&D), I too will focus on this game. First I will examine the most common conceptions one by one and try to determine the source of each, and then I will examine the claims as a whole to give an overall theory about them. The first claim that I’ll discuss is that D&D causes players to commit suicide. According to, Dr. Radedki, â€Å"chairman of the National Coalition on Television Violence†, said â€Å"[t]here is no doubt in my mind that the game Dungeons and Dragons is causing young men to kill themselves and others.† A character in the Chick Tract â€Å"Dark Dungeons† commits suicide after her character dies in the game. The conception seems to be that players get so obsessed by the game, so enthralled, that when something goes wrong (like their character dying) they have difficulty dealing with the consequences. They have so much difficulty, it is claimed, that they sometimes kill themselves because of it. This claim appears to stem from a few different events. This brief history is agreed upon by a number of authors, but I am specifically using Brian Webber’s account, from, and Paul Cardwell, Jr.’s article in the Skeptical Enquirer. The first event was in 1979, when a student named James Dallas Egbert III disappeared from Michigan State University’s campus. It was theorized by an investigator named William Dear that Egbert was lost in the steam tunnels under the campus, acting as a character in D&D. He was found about a month later, but his disappearance had already been highly publicized, starting a new public perception of the game. A year later Egbert committed suicide. In 1982, a boy named Irving Pulling II committed suicide.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Creativity in Maths Essay

The purpose and value of creativity in primary mathematics education Within this essay I am going to discuss the complex notion of creativity, In specific relation to creative teaching within the subject of mathematics. I will define the Issues of Interpreting creativity and the debates surrounding these issues. Secondly I am going to look at theories of creativity and the different views which have been argued. In relation to pedagogy, I will examine if the amount of assessment that teachers are now required to do restricts how creative they can be within their delivery of the curriculum. Furthermore, I will analyse the difficulties of creative pedagogy and the implementation of creative learning across the curriculum, focusing on mathematics. Creative learning can be highly beneficial for children’s learning and development, I will highlight the reasons for this and look at key theories relating to the debate. Lastly, I will look at policies and reviews which suggest that creative teaching approaches should be used across the curriculum. Wlthln education there are complex Issues relating to creativity. Creativity Is defined by different people In many different ways. Duffy (1998 cited In Brock, Dodds, Jarvis nd Olusoga, 2009) defines creativity as a means of forming new connections in a way that is meaningful to the individual. In this way creativity can be very useful for learning, due to the fact that it can help individuals create new distinctions within their learning and gain a firmer understanding of what they are being taught. Similarly Kohl (2008) suggested that creative activities are about exploring exciting and advanced ideas in the hope of discovering something new. Through experimentation learners may stumble across knowledge that was previously unknown to them, which gives them the opportunity to expand on their nderstanding. By provldlng children with creative opportunities practitioners are giving them a chance to expand their knowledge through self-directed learning, In a way that Is of Interest to them as an Individual. Freud (1900 cited in Woolfolk, Hughes and Walkup, 2008) took a psychoanalytical approach to creativity. He believed that creativity is present in all individuals within their unconscious mind and that it is brought about due to a wish to fulfil that individuals desires. Freud argued that all individuals have a creative potential, they just do not always display the use of it. Within children he identified creativity as ideation, a process of creating new ideas. When engaging in certain activities children will be creative In order to gain more enjoyment from what they are doing. Maslow (1943), however took a humanistic approach to the Idea of creativity. He suggested that the drive to learn is intrinsic as Individuals strive to reach self- actualisation. Maslows hierarchy of needs depicts levels of needs which Individuals can meet, starting with very basic needs and moving up to more complex needs which individuals have to strive for in order to achieve. He argued that in order for an Inalvlaual to reacn selT-actuallsatlon at tne top 0T tne pyram10 tney neeaea to extend their thoughts and actions through problem solving, creativity and morality. There are a number of issues surrounding creativity as it can be interpreted differently when put into different contexts. The core areas of learning within education are now heavily assessment based and there is a strong emphasis on literacy and numeracy, which is having a negative effect on creative pedagogy (Eaude, 2011). Within the teaching of core subjects there is very little time allocated to creative activities, instead the pedagogical focus is more on the acquisition of nowledge and facts Cones and Wyse, 2004). It could be argued that if teachers look beyond this structured approach to learning there is plenty of scope for fostering creativity in children’s learning within all areas of the curriculum. In the area of mathematics, children are taught specific skills and knowledge which they will need in order to achieve the level that they are expected to in accordance with the National Curriculum (DfEE, 1999). However, certain areas of mathematics involve a large amount of problem solving, which requires an individual to adapt their thinking n order to develop and discover how best to solve the problem at hand. Problem solving is seen as a creative process (Piggott, 2007). According to Cropley (2003, cited in Jones and Wyse, 2004) problem solving is intrinsic to creativity therefore the learner can be encouraged to use their creative thinking skills within the area of mathematics. On the other hand, children are often still given boundaries to work within, which again will stifle their chance to be creative or explore further possibilities. Creativity has been highlighted to be highly beneficial for children’s learning. Using creative methods of teaching can help to keep children engaged and motivated in their learning. Steiner (1861 – 1925 cited in Wood and Attfield, 2005) stated that within creative activities children become more engaged in their learning and therefore are more likely to learn from the activity that they were participating in. If children are provided with activities that they find captivating and interesting, they are more likely to actively participate, and therefore will gain something from the experiences that they encounter. In order for children’s creativity to flourish, within heir learning they need to be given a chance to do things for themselves (Wilson, 2008). Nickerson (1998 cited in Adams, 2005) suggested that allowing children to have a choice in the task that they are given enhances their creativity. Also the fact that they have chosen the activity for themselves means they will have more motivation to work towards their goals. If children can direct their own learning, by being given their own choices, they will use their current knowledge in a creative way to decide how best to approach the given task. Teaching mathematics in a creative way is seen by many teachers as a challenge. Mathematics is often regarded as a subject with set rules and structure; with right and wrong answers (Wilson, 2005). However, mathematics is not always recognised in it’s full capacity and can be present in areas which are not always deemed to be mathematically inclined, therefore making it a difficult subject to approach in a creatlve capaclty. Most teacners Delleve tnat matnematlcs snou10 De taugnt In a conventional and structured manner, although it could be argued that the reason for this is that teachers may not be confident enough to teach it any other way Cones and Wyse, 2004). Cropley (2001) would argue that conventional methods of teaching can have a negative effect on attitudes and motivation towards individuality as children may be encouraged to work in a certain way in order to logically work out the answers. In order to be creative within their teaching of mathematics, teachers need to provide children with opportunities in which they can extend their thinking and build on previous knowledge. It is often argued that creative mathematics is only accessible to the more able pupils, however it is possible to include all abilities. Furthermore, children of all bilities will always be willing to engage in mathematics creatively if they are given the opportunity. The DfES/QCA (1999) stated that mathematics as a creative discipline can stimulate exciting new achievements for learners and therefore teachers should facilitate all children’s learning by giving them a chance to engage creatively within the subject area. Introducing creative pedagogy in the area of mathematics can have a substantially positive effect on children’s development. Children who previously had little confidence within the subject can be taught different ways of dealing with athematical knowledge. Introducing children to different teaching methods and expanding mathematics using a cross-curricular approach will give children the opportunity to make comparisons and links between mathematics and other curriculum subjects (Cropley, 2001). The use of cross-curricular teaching will give the children the opportunity to partake in learning which links to a subject area that is of interest to them. Mathematics can help develop children’s thinking skills and it is important for children to be able to think creatively within all areas of the curriculum (Cropley, 2001). Within mathematics in particular children sometimes may need to think outside the box in order to discover the answers to what they are looking for. Mathematics can also be a chance for the involvement of abstract thinking skills as children learn to calculate mathematical sums cognitively. Mental arithmetic may be seen as something children commonly engage in, however they need to be able to deal with numbers and mathematics in an abstract context before they can fully develop these skills. Overall, the subject area of mathematics is much more widespread than is always recognised. The use of mathematics can be applied across he curriculum and within children’s every day life. Therefore it is essential to children’s educational development. The National Curriculum (DfEE, 1999) highlights the importance of fostering creativity while still ensuring that pupils gain the essential numeracy skills that they require. The National Curriculum suggests that all areas of the curriculum can be taught creatively, even the core subjects such as mathematics. A number of schools work towards the development of key skills which are outlined in the National Curriculum Handbook, while also including opportunities to be creative within mathematics NCSL, 2005). I ne Natlonal curriculum ) InTormea teacners tnat wltnln mathematics children should be taught to develop thinking skills, problem solving and learn to communicate mathematically. However this document focused more on the attainment of the children rather than the approaches that teachers could take in order to build upon these aspects using creative pedagogy. In 2000, the National Numeracy Strategy (DfE, 2000) was published in order to look at the teaching of mathematics in depth and to suggest to teachers ways in which they could incorporate better pedagogy within the area of mathematics. In his review, Williams (2008 cited in DSCF, 2008) looked at pedagogy for primary mathematics in the curriculum. He argued that in order for the content of a curriculum to be effective it must be partnered with excellent standards of teaching. He talked about developing positive attitudes towards the subject through delivering mathematics in interesting ways which will engage the learner. Through the use of creative pedagogy teachers can provide positive experiences which captivate the learner and therefore help them develop good attitudes towards the subject of mathematics. Similarly to Williams (2008 cited in DSCF, 2008), Ofsted (2010) drew parallels between the National Curriculum and creative approaches to teaching. They reported that children are more motivated by creative ways of learning, suggesting that providing experiences linked to the subject material within the National Curriculum, in which children can develop their creative learning, will in turn have a positive effect on their attitudes towards the subject. In conclusion, creativity is highly important within all aspects of the curriculum. Although it can be interpreted in different ways, this could have a positive effect as it llows for even more originality and diversity within teaching methods.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Types of insurance and performance measurement of insurance companies Essays

Types of insurance and performance measurement of insurance companies Essays Types of insurance and performance measurement of insurance companies Essay Types of insurance and performance measurement of insurance companies Essay Chapter 3: LITERATURE REVIEW Insurance concern involves a batch of hazard because it provides screen against future uncertainness that clients will confront either in their ordinary life or in the class of making concern. Insurance services vary with the types of hazard against which a client wishes or intends to see. This chapter is a reappraisal of literature concentrating on the types of insurance and public presentation measuring of insurance companies. The remainder of this chapter is organized as follows. Section one is about categorization of insurance. Section two discusses the public presentation of insurance companies based on grounds on extant literature. Section three briefly discusses the impact of corporate administration on insurance companies’ public presentation. Section four reports the research spread. 3.1 Insurance Categorization Insurance can be grouped into three chief classs viz: ( 1 ) Life Assurance, ( 2 ) General Insurance and ( 3 ) Re-Insurance ( Financial Stability Forum, 2000 ) . Life Assurance Life confidence purposes to counterbalance the insured beneficiaries’ in the event of his/her decease. Unlike general insurance, life confidence is different ( Brockettet Al., 1994 ) . The fund to counterbalance life confidence client is generated from the premium contributed by the insured. Because mortality rate is comparatively low in many states ( both developed and emerging ) unanticipated eventuality as loss of life is besides comparatively low. In this vena Carson ( 2000 ) contends that life confidence companies are financially stable and that could be seen from their fiscal studies. The growing of industry at all degrees ( runing from primary, secondary to third ) has entailed the demands for new insurance services under the umbrella of life confidence. For case Gracia ( 2001 ) suggests that industrialisation has called for the demands for employee pension fund, cash-back life confidence policy and life confidence with place loans installations. In developed economic systems there are newer merchandises in footings of investings which possible life insured can put. General Insurance General insurance covers all insurances other than life confidence ( Meador et al, 2000 ) . Because of the assorted merchandises that general insurance offers and the chance of the hazard is unsure, risk-taking is higher ( Mansor and Radam, 2000 ) . Recent concern development in emerging economic systems like India, China, Brazil and Russia has significantly driven the general insurance market. Yao et Al ( 2007 ) contends that China has recorded an one-year addition of about 25 per centum in general insurance over the last decennary. Re-insurance Existing literature provides different definitions of re-insurance and re-insurers. This is because of its complex characteristics ( Cole and McCullough, 2008 ) . In a nutshell, reinsurance is the insurance for insurance companies. It provides an insurance screen to the insurance companies which have undertaken a legal contract to see clients for life or general intent insurance. Reinsurance may be regarded as the intensive attention unit of the insurance companies. By buying reinsurance, the insurance companies have taken protection against immense losingss that could lure to bankruptcy. It is compulsory for all insurance concern across the Earth to buy re-insurance policy. 3.2 Performance Measurement Extant literature in accounting and finance has chiefly used the fiscal studies to measure public presentation of any concern organisation in any sector including the insurance sector. Some have used the conventional ratio analysis attack whereas others have tended to sophisticate their attack by utilizing a set of selective indexs which they argue pertain to a specific sector. For case the CARAMELS theoretical account which is besides used by the World Bank to find public presentation of houses in the non-banking fiscal services sector. CARAMELS comprise of a series of ratios computed from the fiscal studies to measure public presentation. Both faculty members and practicians argue that fiscal studies are the most appropriate and relevant beginning of informations to measure public presentation of a house ( Nguyen, 2004 ) because they are prepared harmonizing to proper accounting criterions every bit good as audited in conformity with relevant auditing criterions ( Boolaky, 2012 ; B oolaky, et Al, 2013 ) . Ratio Analysis Conventional fiscal ratios are used to mensurate the underwriting public presentation of insurance companies. Harmonizing to Angoff ( 2005 ) the loss ratio represents the pure cost of insurance coverage as opposed to the disbursal ratio which is the non-claims-related activities of the insurance company. The amount of these two ratios the combined ratio therefore reports the effectivity and efficiency of underwriting operations ( Bergeret Al., 1992, Cummins and Danzon, 1997, and Hoyt and Powel, 2005 ) . Ratio analysis is a fiscal analysis tool to dissect a fiscal study in instance one needs to cognize how good or bad a company is making. They provide utile indexs for determination devising ( Watsonet al. ,2002 ) . Management uses ratios to measure public presentation in each map of the company whereas analysts use them to make up ones mind on their pick of investing. Regulators use ratio analysis as one of their supervisory tools. Ratios provide signals about hazard degree in the company. Using ratios it is possible to find public presentation during both good and bad old ages. Frequently analysts use a set of ratios when carry oning clip series public presentation analysis of companies ( Worrell, 2004 ) . Hirao and Inoue ( 2004 ) uses cost ratio to measure efficiency and effectivity of insurance sector in the Nipponese context whereas Bikker and Bos ( 2008 ) use the conventional ratio of profitableness to measure efficiency of Bankss. Fiscal Reporting for insurance concern has some extra revelation demands over and above the normal revelation model. In this context any insurance company has to follow with the International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) 4: Accounting for Insurance Contracts. However, ratios remain the footing for analyzing the public presentation of these companies ( Liu, 2009 ) . Below is a description of some cardinal ratios used in the literature to measure insurance company public presentation. Long Term Stability Any company has to hold sufficient capital to go on concern. In the instance of insurance concern, it is required by jurisprudence that each insurance company meets the capital adequateness threshold. Any company in the industry will be considered insolvent if it does non hold the minimal capital demand ( Sterling, 2000 ) . Klumpes ( 2004 ) uses a set of public presentation benchmarking in fiscal services sector with particular mention to the life insurance industry in the UK and draws attending on the importance of solvency, reinsurance every bit good as investings made by the insurance companies when measuring the fiscal wellness of an insurance company. Solvency is measured by comparing the assets and the liabilities of a company. Brockett et Al ( 1998 ) suggests that it is the safety valve of the insurance company which it can utilize to protect itself against any unanticipated vagaries. In the context of Mauritius any company including insurance has to go through the solvency trial set by the companies Act 2001 in add-on to the capital adequateness trial of the Insurance Act. The intent of modulating solvency both for the long and short term is to extenuate the hazard associated with market failures ( Fenn et al, 2008 ) . In general insurer‘s capital must be capable of supplying screens to any hereafter hazard event ( Daset Al., 2003 ) . Asset Backing The strength of a company rests in its assets. This implies both non-current and current assets of the companies. In the context of insurance sector because insurance is itself investing concern, the more diversified is its investing portfolio the more stable and less hazardous is the concern. Generally insurance companies would be given to follow a low geartrain policy in order to guarantee that is assets may be used in the event of a ruinous state of affairs. In this context all insurance companies are led to follow a conservative fiscal geartrain policy. Furthermore variable such as investing in existent belongings and its possible to bring forth hard currency are of import. If the ability to bring forth hard currency from existent belongings is low so the hazard associated with those assets are considered high. However if they can be easy converted into hard currency to settle debts so they will be considered as less hazardous ( Jeng et al, 2007 ) . Profitableness Profitableness is defined as the ability of a concern entity to bring forth net income. It is measured by a figure of ratios such as net net income border, return on assets, return on equity, assets turn over. Extant literature has used these ratios to show public presentation of concern entities including insurance concern. In the insurance sector Berger and Mester ( 1997 ) concentrate more on standard net income efficiency instead than normal net income. They argue that the efficiency of net income is a more comprehensive step of insurance public presentation than cost efficiency. Harmonizing to them gain efficiency measures the firm’s ability to recognize maximal net income under a given status. Yuan and Phillips ( 2008 ) argue that alternate net income efficiency assesses alteration in a firm’s net incomes adjusted for random mistake. Efficiency alterations depend on direction attempts and environmental variables. When comparing standard net income efficiency with alternate net income efficiency, the latter uses the variable end product measures than variable end product monetary values. Many other research workers have worked on net income efficiency of insurance companies ( see Berger et Al, 2000 ; Ward, 2002, Klumpes, 2004 ; Jarraya and Bouri, 2013 ) . 3.3 Corporate Administration and Performance There are several surveies which have investigated the consequence of corporate administration on insurance companies’ public presentation. Cummins and Weiss ( 2000 ) suggest that stock companies and common financess public presentation differs because of different corporate administration attack. They argue that common companies are characterized by lower managerial discretion as opposed to stock companies. Greene and Segal ( 2004 ) reveal that common companies and stock companies are both cost efficient. But others argue that common companies are least efficient than stock companies ( Diboky and Ubl, 2007 ) . Hardwick et Al ( 2004 ) look into the relationship between size of the board of managers and insurance houses efficiency and infer that there is a direct relationship between the two variables. Hyraxet Al. , ( 2003 ) suggest that effectual direction is an of import driver of the fiscal strength of an insurance company. Furthermore, unsound efficiency indexs could bespeak possible jobs in the direction of proficient and investing hazards. Boolaky ( 2007 ) investigates how conformity with corporate administration codification by the fiscal services sector in Mauritius contributes towards effectual public presentation. His survey was based on the whole population of the fiscal services houses and he drew informations from their one-year studies. His findings suggest that houses with higher conformity degree are more effectual and efficient. 3.4 Research Gap Research on the insurance sector is really rich around the universe. Some research workers have investigated the bureau hazard in the insurance concern whilst others have delved into determiners of public presentation. But bulk of these surveies were confined to big economic systems including developed, emerging and developing economic systems. As yet there is no published survey on the insurance sector of Mauritius and in peculiar on the public presentation development of this sector. My undertaking aims to make full the spread by carry oning a clip series analysis on the public presentation of three cardinal insurance companies in Mauritius over a period of 50 old ages. Ratio analysis is used to calculate the public presentation indexs and unit root trial to look into for stationarity. More inside informations are given in chapter 4- Research Methodology.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

An Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge essays

An Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge essays What makes Ambrose Bierce a realist Author "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" can be considered a work of realism for two reasons. The first is Bierce's utilization of his own military background giving this story a sense of realism. Bierce also conveys his pessimism after leading the reader to believe otherwise. This story provides social critique of the south during the Civil War. Bierce goes to great lengths to describe the opening sequence in terms of its military arrangement. He provides brilliant images of group formations and soldier stances like "a single company of infantry in line, at 'parade rest' the butts of the rifles on the ground, the barrels inclining backward against the right shoulder, the hands crossed upon the stock". He also takes the time to describe exactly how fortified the Owl Creek Bridge is. He shows his military experience by describing a road that stretches out of site and assuming that "Doubtless there was an outpost farther along". The procedures of a military execution were explained thoroughly including the code of conduct: "In the code of military manners silence and fixity are forms of deference". Bierce earned the nickname "Bitter Bierce early in his life for his pessimism. This is not evident in this story until the end. The third and final part begins with a sequence of miraculous occurrences allowing Peyton Farquhar to es cape from his hanging. The description of these events leads the reader to believe that Bierce is a Romantic author rather than a realist. The rope breaks dropping him into the creek. He then uses his "superhuman strength to remove the rope from around his neck. Peyton is then blessed with better senses seeing the veins on leaves in the forest and hearing gnats and dragonfly wings in the distance. Then he sees the eye of a marksman on the bridge through the range on the rifle. Amazingly, this marksman misses what should be an easy target and allows Farquhar to...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Examine the view of British Class and society that Lindsay Anderson Essay

Examine the view of British Class and society that Lindsay Anderson provides in the films If....(1968), O, Lucky Man (1973) and Britannia Hospital (1982) - Essay Example He later wrote for Sight and Sound, a journal for the British Film Institute and the New Statesman, a left wing weekly. He lashed at contemporary critics and their objectivity pursuit in one article for Sights and Sounds. Anderson went on to develop a philosophy concerning cinema, which was christened the Free Cinema movement in the latter part of the 1950s. This philosophy held that cinema in Britain needed to break off from the class-bound attitudes it projected and that the national screens needed to be adorned with stories of non-metropolitan Britain. This paper seeks to examine three of Anderson’s films: â€Å"If...†, â€Å"O, Lucky Man†, and â€Å"Britannia hospital† and the view of British class and society that they provided. The use of the word new wave to describe cultural phenomena is a vital metaphor that when extended and scrutinised further allows one to picture the deep up currents and swellings that formed the wave (Allon, 2007 p7). These films challenged the old norms and were driven by an amalgam of social-democratic and liberal sentiments, which can ironically be viewed as a portion of the success of the economic boom in Britain that allowed the era’s youth to dream, in relatively secure economic mind-frames, about futures other than those that had been held as the norm. Perhaps a perfect example is If†¦, which came at the tail-end of the New Wave’s phase of social realism and had a nature that was ambiguous in both its recognition of a rapidly changing and expanding British future and its style, both in technique and theme. After his vital role in the Free Cinema movement development, he was involved integrally in the social realist filmmaking of the British New Wave (Anderson et al, 2007 p45). His movie This Sporting Life, based on flashbacks, was viewed as having too much intensity and purely naturalistic. In 1968, Anderson made

Friday, November 1, 2019

ASSIGNMENT SHEET -- BUSINESS LETTER Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ASSIGNMENT SHEET -- BUSINESS LETTER - Essay Example You want $10000 in compensation. You attached a photo of the frog with the letter. However, with uttermost sincerity, it is my pleasure to inform you that Wal-Mart is a large and renowned company countrywide and the error that may have erupted during your consumption of our goods must have been an external factor rather than one caused by our own incompetence of quality service delivery. It is our duty to ensure that the usual high standards of our goods are maintained. Like mentioned above, am afraid we may not consider the misfortune you experienced a result of our incompetence since the company is a government certified company, with the entire permit to deliver these commodities to the customers. I did all the necessary investigations concerning our storage facilities and am happy to note that they are up to standard. We pack our goods with the greatest care, and we can only presume that the goods must have been mishandled after purchase. We always see to it that each vegetable mix is well checked before actual packing. The containers in which we store the veg etables are thoroughly cleaned on a daily basis thus cannot attract any pests whatsoever, leave their survival in there alone. The health officers also investigate us every month to see to it that our commodities are up to the standards; otherwise, there are high chances that we would have been closed down by now. I presume you must have bought a sealed product, as you did not mention that in your claim letter. However, being a loyal customer to Wal-Mart Company, and to show our goodwill to our customers, we are willing to extend a gesture of our kindness by allowing you a free shopping of goods of the same value or even dispatch the same to your area of residence. It is sad to note that your $1000 plea is rather too much and unacceptable especially when we are most innocent of the allegations. Wal-Mart may not be ready to offer that, especially for a foul not