Monday, September 23, 2019

What I Have Learned About Women, Work And Society Essay

What I Have Learned About Women, Work And Society - Essay Example Professional or managerial work affects women not in the same way as work on assembly line or in service sector. Women's socio-economic status and access to social support inside and outside of the family can also mediate role performance. Another important dimension of women's roles has to do with choice and necessity. "Public" roles, such as worker or social activist, are usually voluntary, and hence conducive to the sense of mastery and self-actualization (Boris and Chaudhuri 2001). Conversely, caretaking roles are often experienced as "imposed," and lead to perceived loss of control and poorer mental health. Therefore, universal models of role interaction should be supplemented by the more contextualized studies in specific groups of women of different age, ethnicity and social standing. Professional or managerial work affects women not in the same way as work on assembly line or in service sector. Women's socio-economic status and access to social support inside and outside of the family can also mediate role performance. Another important dimension of women's roles has to do with choice and necessity. "Public" roles, such as worker or social activist, are usually voluntary, and hence conducive to the sense of mastery and self-actualization. Conversely, caretaking roles are often experienced as "imposed," and lead to perceived loss of control and poorer mental health. Therefore, universal models of role interaction should be supplemented by the more contextualized studies in specific groups of women of different age, ethnicity and social standing. Professional or managerial work affects women not in the same way as work on assembly line or in service sector. Women's socio-economic status and access to social support inside and outside of the family can also mediate role performance. Another important dimension of women's roles has to do with choice and necessity. "Public" roles, such as worker or social activist, are usually voluntary, and hence conducive to the sense of mastery and self-actualization. Conversely, caretaking roles are often experienced as "imposed," and lead to perceived loss of control and poorer mental health. Therefore, universal models of role interaction should be supplemented by the more contextualized studies in specific groups of women of different age, ethnicity and social standing. The bulk of earlier social research on women's roles was typically focused on the roles of younger women, i.e. those of wife, mother of young children, and employee; few studies addressed the issue of role overload in older working women. Using concepts of "caregiver stress" or "caregiver burden," the impact of elder care on the caregiver, as well as the cumulative effect of multiple roles, have been increasingly addressed. (Barbara Hanawalt 1986) The need in family-based care of the elderly is rapidly expanding in response to growing life expectancy and population ageing. Since women live, on the average, 5-7 years longer than men, they form the majority among both providers and recipients of care. The need for support and assistance progressively ascends after age 65, and by age 85 over half of the elderly cannot function without help. Despite growing social and geographic mobility in modern families, the ties between the elders and their adult children are stronger than was believed in past decades. Long-Term Care Survey in the U.S. has shown that 80% of elder care is provided by family members, and 72% of the caregivers are women, usually daughters or daughters-in-law. (Boris And Janssens 2000) Another demographic factor increasing the likelihood of having elderly parents while still young is the postponement of childbearing in most western countries. Many middle-class women, who invest time and effort in education and career, marry and bear children in their 30s and even early 40s. By the time these children start families of their own, their parents may well be into their late 60s. The small number of siblings in modern nuclear families also results in excessive caregiver burden falling on a single child, usually a daughter. About two million American women are simultaneously engaged in care of their teenage or younger children and ageing parents. An adult woman can expect to spend 17 years of her life caring for children and 18 years

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