Saturday, September 28, 2019

Comparison Between Directed and Reported Speech

DIRECT SPEECH VS. REPORTED SPEECH There are two ways to report what someone says or thinks; 1. Direct speech shows a person’s exact words. Quotation marks (â€Å". . . †) are a sign that the words are the same words that a person used. For example: Madison: What do you want to eat for lunch? Jason: I think I will have hamburger. Direct speech: Maria asked, â€Å"What do you want to eat for lunch? † Jason replied, â€Å"I think I will have hamburger. † 2. Reported speech (Indirect speech) puts the speaker’s words or ideas into a sentence without quotation marks. Noun clauses are usually used.For example: Madison: What do you want to eat for lunch? Jason: I think I will have hamburger. Reported speech: Madison asked Jason What he wanted for lunch. Jason said that he was thinking of having hamburger for lunch. COMPASRISON BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH 1. 0 VERB TENSE IN REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| simple present past present pe rfect will can | simple past past perfectpast perfect wouldcould| Quotation Reported speech â€Å"I am hungry. † She stated that she was hungry. â€Å"The exam will be next week. † Dr. Jones said the exam will be next week 2. QUESTIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH a. Word order: The word order in a reported question is the same as in a statement. The subject comes before the verb. b. Punctuation: If the sentence is a statement, it end with a period (. ) even if it contains a reported question. c. To change a yes/no question to a noun clause in reported speech, introduce the noun clause with if or whether. Whether or not may also be used. d. To change an information question to a noun clause in reported speech, begin the noun clause with the question word,DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * Question: Are you ready? Statement: I am ready. * â€Å"Did you turn off the coffee pot? † * â€Å"Is supper ready? † * â€Å"Where do they live? † * â€Å"When did you cal l? † | * She wanted to know if I was ready. * I asked Amy if she had turned off the coffee. * Eli wanted to know whether supper was ready. * Abdul wanted to know where they live. * Sharon asked me when I had called. | 3. 0 PRONOUNS Since the person who is reporting what someone said is usually different from the person who made the original statement, pronouns in reported speech often change.DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * â€Å"I am hungry. † * â€Å"Where will you be? † | * George said he was hungry. * Bill wanted to know where I would be. | 4. 0 PLACE AND TIME Changes in place and time words depend on changes in the situation between direct and reported speech. DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * â€Å"I don’t like this book. † * â€Å"I’ll see you tomorrow. † (spoken on Thursday) | * Jaime said he didn’t like that book. * Michiko said she would see me today. (spoken on Friday) Michiko said she would see me yesterday. (spoken on Saturday)| 5. 0 INFINITIVES . Infinitives (to + the simple form of the verb) may sometimes be used instead of noun clauses. b. Commands can be reported two ways: 1. a noun clause with a modal (usually should) 2. an infinitive c. Requests for action or permission can be reported two ways: 1. a noun clause with if 2. an infinitive DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED SPEECH| * â€Å"Call me when you get home. † * Action: â€Å"Will you carry the box for me? † * Permission: â€Å"Can I make an appointment? † | * -She said that we should call her when we get home. -She said to call her when we get home. -She asked me if I would carry the box for her. * -She asked me to carry the box for her. * -The student asked if he could make an appointment. -The student asked to make an appointment. | 6. 0 RECOMMEND AND SUGGEST The subjunctive, or base, form of the verb (no tense, without to) is used in reported speech when the main verb is recommend or suggest. DIRECT SPEECH| REPORTED S PEECH| * â€Å"You should arrive early. † * â€Å"Don’t wait to apply. † | * Jason recommended that we arrive early. * Anna recommended that I not wait to apply. |

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