Friday, August 23, 2019

Answering Questions about Pioneers of Psychology Term Paper

Answering Questions about Pioneers of Psychology - Term Paper Example Moore (2006) argues that falling of an apple noticed by Newton leads to growth of commonsense psychology which in turn guides us to human psychology. It can be said that observation of free falling apple and formulation of laws of gravity is a reflection of common sense of a great person like Newton. In addition to common sense psychology, Newton has also done an important work regarding color vision which has a great significance in biological psychology and physiology. Freedheim (2003) discusses in his work that Newton was the only physicist who recognized the nature of color. Before and during the time of Newton, there was a great debate that whether light is wave or particle in nature. But Newton supported particle theory about the nature of light. This theory left deep impact on early development of psychology. One can say that Newton based his scientific theories on practical experience of phenomenon. It is known as an empirical approach. This approach was also adopted in psych ology and philosophy due to its fruitful results. Kumar (2002) writing about Newton’s approach says that Lock profoundly admired him and sought to develop such an approach in philosophy which was similar to it. Later on this approach helped psychologists to study human behavior. There is close relation among subjects of social as well as natural sciences. Describing this relationship Bornstein (1984, p. 242) writes â€Å"physics begets bio-chemistry, bio-chemistry begets physiology and physiology begets psychology†. So one can say that physics has great closeness with psychology and laws of motion and gravitation have influenced the subject matter of psychology. Present scholars say that if a child asks about falling of apples or any other similar thing then one can answer him with profound understanding of laws of nature. 2. Errors in Aristotle’s Psychology Aristotle occupies a significant place in different fields, such as literature, philosophy, history and p sychology. As he has contributed in other fields, similarly his prominent work in psychology has attracted the attention of great scholars and psychologists. Many researchers have critically examined and studied Aristotle’s thoughts about the mind of human beings. He has discussed about the soul, human imagination, perception, thinking and desire. Aristotle’ psychology has prominent role in study of soul which is called psuche in Greek language. Aristotle distinguishes between living and non-living things on basis of existence of soul. Aristotle argues that all living things have soul while no-living things do not have this essential element. He further says that due to this important element people grow, digest, breathe and reproduce. He also believes that plants and animals have souls as human beings. Aristotle has further categorized the organisms on basis of their capabilities. In Aristotle’s view plants and animals possess lesser powers of soul while human souls have more powers. Moreover, Aristotle argues that soul cannot live outside the body. Guthrie (1956) explaining this concept of soul says that in Aristotle’s view body is a tool through which soul expresses itself. On the other hand, Aristotle talking about ‘thought’ maintains that it can exist outside the body of a person. When one analyzes psychological works of Aristotle, then many errors become evident. One major criticism

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