Tuesday, June 4, 2019
The Important Pursuit Of Marine Conservation Environmental Sciences Essay
The Important Pursuit Of devil dog Conservation Environmental Sciences EssayOceans and seas cover 70% of the worlds surface and are of critical splendour economically, environmentally and socially. As an island nation, the UK coasts rough 7500 miles of coast line and a wealth of leatherneck biodiversity. The leatherneck environment around England is extremely rich and diverse. England has somewhat of the finest maritime wildlife in Europe. Englands seas contain amazing underwater landscapes andover 10,000 species, including many of study and European importance. For example, England has more underwater chalk reefs than anywhere else in Europe. We have some surprising species such as sea fans, solitary corals, sea horses, sharks and dolphins as well as many types of fish and invertebrates.The seas around England contain an consequential region of our wildlife. Some 50% of the variety of our species is found in the sea, in an area that is three times the land area.The geology of the seabed around England is rich and varied, ranging from rocky granite reefs to planetary sandbanks. It is this variety of seabed type, coupled with the influence of colder Arctic and warmer Mediterranean waters around our shores, those results in the diverse range of shipboard soldier species and habitats in our seas.In this project result focus on looking intoHow climate variety affect the potential production for fisheries resources, and how it will affect in the futurecompared to prehistoric and present scenarios, in the absence of utilizationwill estimate the added liability of these effects on national and regional economies in oceanic-dependent areas and on specific elements of nautical system at diverse scalesFuture vulnerabilities of national economies (and globally) to determine the consequences of predicted naval scenarios, including affection of marine policies on all economic, environmental and social platformsRationale travail 1 Explain why the topic you have chosen is frequently on the political agenda, stating why the issue is so controversial.The environment, as general topic, has been on the political agenda since the late 1960s. A human nature relationship connects to extraordinary diverse set of issues covered by environmental politics, which include marine conservation. The emergence of conservation and nature protection groups in the latter map of the nineteenth and the early twentieth countries, was the first signal of concern about environmental issues on political agenda, reflecting growing inte break in the protection of wild life and natural resources.The marine environment is increasingly high up the constitution and political agenda now and rightly so. The marine environment is so important on a political agenda because it is critical important part of our economic, environmental and social existence. It providesa widevariety of goods and services.Our seas supply us with many goods and services includingClimate reg ulation.Our oceans regulate our climate by redistributing heat around the world. Evaporation from the oceans forms the moisture that results in rain on land. The plankton in their uppermost layers helps stimulate cloud formation due to the chemicals they naturally emit. This plays a crucial part in temperature regulation of our planet.Food sources.The oceans provide food for hundreds of millions of people worldwide.Storing carbon.Oceans act as the largest store of carbon on the planet, drawing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and trapping it.Energy.We obtain oil and gas from under the sea bed. Offshore wind farms also provide a source of renewable energy, and waves and tides provide a hike potential resource.Building materials.We use marine aggregates such as sand and gravels as building materials.Transport.The marine environment also links us to the rest of the world. In 2007 24.8 million passengers took international journeys by ship and UK ports handled 582 million tonnes (Mt ) of freight traffic.Recreation.Our seas and coasts provide a place for a wide variety of leisure activities from sailplaning and scuba diving to swimming and surfing. In 2007, we took over 20 million trips to the seaside in England.Because our seas are wide supplier in many different ways its important to take care of such a source. Thats why is so hot topic on political agenda to save it, as it isnt in the best its form at the moment and continues to come under pressure from man, as we increasingly make use of its goods and services it provides. (http//www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/marine/default.aspx) line of work 2 Examine selective aspects of UK Governments Environmental policy from 1970, and state how environmental policy impacts on say housing or transportation.Englands marine environment is non as well understood or protected as the terrestrial environment. It requires particular attention and focus to develop the evidence, protection, sustainable use, understanding an d appreciation of our seascapes and marine biodiversity.Englands seas are protected and managed in a number of waysLegislation and policyThe marine environment is protected through a variety of national and international legislation and policies. Divided in two levels European and national.Site protectionSite protection is afforded though a number of designations. Together these will form a network ofMarine Protected AreasSpecial Areas of Conservation(SACs) under the Habitats Directive,Special Protection Areasfor birds (under the Birds Directive),SSSIswhich occasionally cover sub-tidal areas and in futureMarine Conservation Zonesunder the Marine Bill.Management of activitiesActivities in the marine environment are regulated by a licensing regime and within European marine sites by the Habitats Regulations. Natural England advises developers and regulators on the environmental impact of activities. TheMarine and Coastal Access Billwill include provisions for establishing a system of marine planning, a newMarine Protected Areadesignation, and fisheries management, marine licensing and establishing a new marine management organisation.England Biodiversity StrategyNatural England leads on the marine workstream of the England Biodiversity Strategy, which is creditworthy for ensuring delivering the marineBiodiversity Action Plans.Through Marine Programme, DEFRA is working to improve the state of the UKs marine environment and fisheries and achieve our vision for clean, healthy, safe, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas.The UK has an important sea fish industry with one of the largest fishing fleets and fish processing industries in Europe. Freshwater fisheries is also a major leisure industry in our rural areas. In the UK, Defra is the lead department for fisheries and plays a major role in EU and international negotiations, as well as in managing and implementing fisheries policy. tilt stocks are national and international resources that have to be husbanded sustainably. If we lose them from over-fishing, they may take many years to regenerate. We also have to protect all marine species from sea pollution which could wreck their ecology.Figure 5 Flow chart of capture (wild) and farmed fisheries products from aquatic primary production. Numbers refer to 1997 data and are in megatons (million metric tons) of fish. Thicker lines refer to direct flows of aquatic primary production through capture fisheries and aquaculture to humans. Thin lines refer to indirect and minor flows. Red lines indicate negative feedbacks on the aquatic production base. (Modified from Naylor et al. 2000)Figure Ecological links between intensive fish and shrimp aquaculture and capture fisheries. Thick blue lines refer to master(prenominal) flows from aquatic production base through fisheries and aquaculture to human consumption of seafood. Thin blue lines refer to other inputs needed for production (e.g., agro feed, fish meal, seed stock, etc.). hatc hed red lines indicate negative feedbacks. (Modified from Naylor et al. 2000)This approach removes doubts as to what exploitation regulations will be put into practice in coming decades, and focuses on the added impacts that climate change is likely to cause, and on the subsequent additional risks and vulnerabilities to human societies.Legislation restricts fishermen in what and where they can fish. The most significant legislation with respect to fisheries s the European northern Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) but legislation on fisheries matters comes from three sourcesThe EUThe Department for Environment , Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), or Scottish executive director (SEERAD) in Scotland sea Fisheries Committees for local legislation in England and WalesThere are around 280 ports, harbours and creeks around the UK where fish is landed, the major fishing ports in the UK in ground of value of fish landed arePeterhead chiefly haddock, cod, monkfish, mackerel, nephrops, herringLo chinver blue ling, ling, nepheropsFraserburgh haddock, herring, mackerel, nephrops.Sources Statistics of fish landings into ports in England, Wales and Northern Ireland by port 2001, Defra website.UK Seafood Industry Annual Statistics 2001, Sea fish.Scottish Fishery Harbour Background Study, Sea fish Policy and Economic Unit.