Saturday, April 13, 2013

Criminal Psychology Revision/Study notes (Created from the UK Edexcel A Level syllabus requirements)

CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY

DEFINING CRIME

Consensus View

-         Crime is a violation of the law.

-         The law reflects the general consensus of what is right.

-          therefrom anyone who breaks the law is committing a criminal make for.

Conflict View

-         The law reflects the interests of certain groups, non the whole of society.

-         Dissatisfaction between groups of differing power and economic status feed to conflict.

-         Therefore if a discourtesy is victimless, should it be viewed as criminal?

Interactionist View

-         The reason behind criminal behaviour determines whether or not it constitutes a crime.

-         An act is not criminal; it is the reason behind the act that may be criminal.

-         If the meaning behind an act is criminal, it is criminal, unless if the act is done in self-defence it may not be a crime, even if it is breaking the law.

        

RESEARCHING CRIME

Incidence of crime = crime rate of population

Prevalence of crime = rate of individuals who experience crime

Police Records - official statistics:

-          stumblebum and Sparks (1970) - only about two thirds of serious crimes reported be officially recorded.

-         Many crimes go unreported e.g. rape, or bouncy e.g. domestic violence.

-         Crime rates may appear to flip-flop if the method used to measure crime is altered.

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Offender Surveys

-         Belson (1975) interviewed 1445 boys aged 13-16. 70% had been involved in theft from a shop.

-         Such studies signal official figures underestimate the level of crime.

-         Although sampling procedures may be biased and participants may exaggerate or deny their affaire in criminal acts.

Victim Surveys

-         British Crime Survey - kinsfolk survey to discover unreported crimes.

-         Show violent crimes ar not common.

-         Hough and Matthew estimated adults should expect to be burgled once every 40 years and...

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